The Seventh Day of Pesach - שביעי של פסח

By Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David (Greg Killian)

 


I. Introduction. 1

II. Pesach vs. Succoth. 2

III. Nisan is Like Tishri 5

IV. Futures. 6

V. Readings and Chronology. 6

VI. Day By Day. 15

VII. Pesach’s Seventh Day Events. 16

VIII. In The Machzor 20

IX.  In The Haggada. 27

X.  In The Body. 28

X. Conclusion. 29

 

I. Introduction

 

The seventh day of Pesach[1] (Passover), Shvi’i shel Pesach - שביעי של פסח, is the last day of the seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread,[2] which is also known as Passover. The centrality of the Exodus story, in the Torah, is so absolute that its memory is linked with Shabbat (Sabbath), the festival of Pesach (Passover), the seder (the special feast and the telling of the exodus), the day of Bikkurim (firstfruits), the festival of Succoth (Tabernacles), the Shema (Hear O Israel…), tefillin (Phylacteries), mezuzah (boxes on the door post), and the future redemption. The crossing of the Yam Suf,[3] The Sea of Reeds, completed our time in Egypt. When we crossed the Yam Suf we finally had our freedom from the slavery of Egypt. (We would not be truly free until we received the Torah on Shavuot.) This seminal event occurred on the seventh day of Pesach. The crossing of the Yam Suf represented the birth of the nation. To see the details of The Exodus, see my study titled:  STAGES

 

Our Sages consider two events, the Exodus from Egypt and the Splitting of the Red Sea (on the seventh day of Passover),[4] to be of such fundamental importance that they require us to recall them every day.[5] This obligation indicates that they are not simply incidents in history. Instead, the Exodus from Egypt and the Splitting of the Red Sea reflect two continually relevant stages in our service of HaShem.

 

When the Children of Israel crossed the Yam Suf, on the seventh day of Pesach, a new nation was literaly born! (see THEBIRTH)

 

Lets start our study by examining the Torah portion where the observance of the seventh day of Pesach is commanded:

 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:5-8 HaShem’s Pesach begins at twilight on the fourteenth day of the first month. On the fifteenth day of that month HaShem’s Feast of Unleavened Bread begins; for seven days you must eat bread made without yeast. On the first day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work. For seven days present an offering made to HaShem by fire. And on the seventh day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work.’“

 

The seventh day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread is a Shabbat (do no regular work) that is commemorated with a “sacred assembly“. This festival Shabbat, this Yom Tov, is celebrated for two days (the seventh and eighth days) outside the land of Israel and for one day in eretz Israel.

 

Our observance of the seventh day of Pesach is commanded a second time, in the Torah, to bear witness of HaShem’s command.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 12:14-17 “This is a day you are to commemorate; for the generations to come you shall celebrate it as a festival to HaShem--a lasting ordinance. For seven days you are to eat bread made without yeast. On the first day remove the yeast from your houses, for whoever eats anything with yeast in it from the first day through the seventh must be cut off from Israel. On the first day hold a sacred assembly, and another one on the seventh day. Do no work at all on these days, except to prepare food for everyone to eat--that is all you may do. “Celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because it was on this very day that I brought your divisions out of Egypt. Celebrate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come.

 

We can see that The Feast of Unleavened Bread has a Sabbath and a sacred assembly on both the first and the seventh days of the feast.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 13:4-10 Today, in the month of Abib, you are leaving. When HaShem brings you into the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites and Jebusites--the land he swore to your forefathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey--you are to observe this ceremony in this month: For seven days eat bread made without yeast and on the seventh day hold a festival to HaShem. Eat unleavened bread during those seven days; nothing with yeast in it is to be seen among you, nor shall any yeast be seen anywhere within your borders. On that day tell your son, ‘I do this because of what HaShem did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ This observance will be for you like a sign on your hand and a reminder on your forehead that the law of HaShem is to be on your lips. For HaShem brought you out of Egypt with his mighty hand. You must keep this ordinance at the appointed time year after year.

 

We can also see that the seventh day is not a separate feast, as the eighth day (Shemini Atzeret) of the Feast of Succoth is. The seventh day is the end of a seven day feast.

 

Bamidbar (Numbers) 28:16-25 “‘On the fourteenth day of the first month HaShem’s Pesach is to be held. On the fifteenth day of this month there is to be a festival; for seven days eat bread made without yeast. On the first day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work. Present to HaShem an offering made by fire, a burnt offering of two young bulls, one ram and seven male lambs a year old, all without defect. With each bull prepare a grain offering of three-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil; with the ram, two-tenths; And with each of the seven lambs, one-tenth. Include one male goat as a sin offering to make atonement for you. Prepare these in addition to the regular morning burnt offering. In this way prepare the food for the offering made by fire every day for seven days as an aroma pleasing to HaShem; it is to be prepared in addition to the regular burnt offering and its drink offering. On the seventh day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work.

 

The sacred assembly is defined by Strong’s as:

 

4744 miqra’, mik-raw’; from 7121; something called out, i.e. a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal:-assembly, calling, convocation, reading.

 

So, our sacred assembly is a rehearsal for some momentous future event(s).

 

II. Pesach vs. Succoth

 

The seventh day of Pesach is not a separate festival. It is still a part of Pesach. This is different from the feast of Succoth where the eighth day is also considered a separate festival. The Talmud explains what this means to us:

 

Sukkah 47a R. Johanan ruled, We recite the benediction of the season[6] on the Eighth Day of the Festival,[7] but we do not say the benediction of the season on the seventh day of Pesach. [In connection with this] R. Levi b. Hama or, as some say, R. Hama b. Hanina stated, You can have proof that this is so,[8] since [the Eighth Day] is different [from the preceding days] in three respects: In those of Sukkah, Lulav and water libation,[9] and according to R. Judah who maintained that with one log[10] of water they performed the water libation for eight days,[11] it is different at least in two respects. If so, is not the seventh day of Pesach also different in respect of the commandment to eat unleavened bread, since a Master has said, On the first night[12] it is an obligation [to eat unleavened bread], and henceforth it is voluntary?[13] — What a comparison! In the case of Pesach, it is different from the first night, but not from the day,[14] whereas in the case of the Eighth Day, it is different even from the preceding day. Rabina replied, The Eighth Day is different from the day immediately preceding it, whereas the seventh day of Pesach is different from what is prior [to the period] which precedes it.[15] R. Papa replied,[16] In one case[17] it is written ‘bullock’, in the other[18] ‘bullocks’. R. Nahman b. Isaac replied, In this case[19] it is written, ‘on the day’, in the other,[20] ‘and on the day’. R. Ashi replied, In the case of the Eighth Day it is written, ‘According to the ordinance’ while in the case of the seventh day it is written, ‘according to their ordinance’.

 

The seventh day of Pesach and the eighth day of Succoth are also likened in other ways:

 

Chagigah 9a MISHNAH. HE WHO DID NOT BRING HIS FESTAL-OFFERING ON THE FIRST FESTIVAL, DAY OF THE FEAST [OF TABERNACLES], MAY BRING IT DURING THE WHOLE OF THE FESTIVAL, EVEN ON THE LAST FESTIVAL DAY[21] OF THE FEAST [OF TABERNACLES]. IF THE FESTIVAL, PASSED AND HE DID NOT BRING THE FESTIVAL OFFERING, HE IS NOT BOUND TO MAKE IT GOOD. OF SUCH A PERSON IT IS SAID: HE THAT IS CROOKED CANNOT BE MADE STRAIGHT AND THAT WHICH IS WANTING CANNOT BE RECKONED.[22] R. SIMEON B. MENASYA SAID: WHO IS IT ‘THAT IS CROOKED’ WHO ‘CANNOT BE MADE STRAIGHT’? HE THAT HAS CONNECTION WITH A FORBIDDEN RELATION[23] AND BEGETS BY HER BASTARD ISSUE. SHOULD YOU SAY THAT IT APPLIES TO A THIEF OR ROBBER, BUT THEN HE IS ABLE TO MAKE RESTITUTION AND BE MADE STRAIGHT. R. SIMEON B. YOHAI SAID: ONLY HE CAN BE CALLED ‘CROOKED’ WHO WAS STRAIGHT AT FIRST AND BECAME CROOKED. AND WHO IS THIS? — A DISCIPLE OF THE SAGES WHO FORSAKES THE TORAH.

 

GEMARA. Whence do we know this?[24] — R. Johanan in the name of R. Ishmael said: [The expression] ‘Azereth [‘solemn assembly’] is used of the seventh day of Pesach,[25] and [the expression] ‘Azereth is used of the eighth day of the Feast [of Tabernacles].[26] Just as there it[27] intimates that one can make good [thereon the festal-offering due on the first day] so here[28] it intimates that one can make good [thereon the festal-offering of the first day]. And it is free [for interpretation];[29] for were it not free one might object: whereas [this[30] applies] to the seventh day of Pesach which is not differentiated from the preceding [days], can you say this of the eighth day of the Feast [of Tabernacles] which is differentiated from the preceding [days].[31] But it is not so; it is quite free [for interpretation]. Consider, what does ‘Azereth mean? [Evidently it means], restrained [‘Azur][32] in respect of doing work. But behold it is written: Thou shalt do no work;[33] wherefore, then, has the Divine Law written ‘Azereth?[34] You must infer therefrom [that it is] in order to leave it free [for interpretation]. But the Tanna[35] [of the following Baraitha] deduces it from here. For it is taught: And ye shall keep it a feast unto the Lord seven days.[36] One might think that he must go on bringing festal-offerings the whole of the seven days. Scripture, therefore, says, ‘it’: on it [only] are you to offer festal-offerings, but you are not to offer festal-offerings on all the seven days. If so, why does it say, ‘seven’? To intimate that one may make good [the festal-offering during the seven days of the festival]. And whence [do we learn] that if he did not bring the festal-offering on the first festival day of the Feast [of Tabernacles] that he can go on bringing it during the course of the whole Festival, even on the last festival day? Scripture says: Ye shall keep it in the seventh month.[37] If, now, [it is to be kept] in the seventh month, one might think that one can go on bringing the festal-offering throughout the whole month, therefore Scripture says. ‘it’:[38] on ‘it’ [only] are you to offer festal-offerings, but you are not to offer festal-offerings outside it.

 

For an in-depth examination of the relationship between the first and the seventh month, please see my study titled, “RAINS“.

 


III. Nisan is Like Tishri

 

Tekufah of Nisan (Vernal Equinox) Nisan – The First Month Ripening of grain

1

 

New Year for counting months.

 

The pur is cast.

 

The Mishkan and Temple start operating.

10

 

Sacrifice (Passover lamb) is selected.

 

Israelites enter the promised land.

 

Abraham and household are circumcised

 

Physical freedom begins.

 

Judgment of the firstborn.

 

Shabbat HaGadol – the Great Sabbath. We examine a lamb for blemishes.

14-15

 

Festival Sabbath

 

HaShem’s people enter protective abode.

 

Passover Seder.

 

Messiah dies.

 

Israel must eat matza.

 

Lulav is burned with bedikat chametz

16

17

18

 

Read Shir HaShirim and Shemot 33:12 – 34:26 on the weekly Sabbath during Pesach

 

 

19

20

21

 

7th day of Passover

 

Festival Sabbath

 

We read the judgement of Egypt at the Yam Suf.

 

 

Iyar 18

 

Lag B’Omer

Sivan 6

 

Festival Sabbath

 

Shavuot  Atzeret

 

Torah was given

Large loaves waved.

 

Pilgrimage festival.

 

Read the book of Ruth

 

No distinctive practice for the people.

Passover

 

Feast of Matza – the bread of affliction.

 

Israelites begin living in Succoth while traveling.

 

Pilgrimage festival.

 

First harvest (barley). Barley is waved.

 

Israel may eat only unleavened food.

Tekufah of Tishri (Autumn Equinox) Tishri – The Seventh Month Ripening of grapes and olives

1-2

 

Festival Sabbath

 

Yom Teruah.

 

New Year for counting years.

 

Judgment day.

 

Messiah, our Temple, comes!

10

 

Festival Sabbath

 

Yom HaKippurim

 

Sacrifice is (two goats) selected.

 

We return to the state we enjoyed in Eden.

 

Adam was circumcised when created.

 

Total Jubilee freedom begins.

 

Neilah – judgment complete.

 

On The Sabbath before Yom HaKippurim Shabbat Shuvah ("Sabbath of Repentance")

15

 

Festival Sabbath

 

HaShem’s people enter protective abode.

 

Messiah is born.

 

Israel must live in Succah

16

17

18

 

Read the book of Kohelet and Shemot 33:12 – 34:26 on the weekly Sabbath during Succoth.

19

20

21

 

Hoshana Rabbah – The final judgement.

 

 

 

22

 

Festival Sabbath

 

Shemini Atzeret

 

Simchat Torah

Reading of Torah is concluded and started again.

 

Torah scrolls are waved.

 

No distinctive practice.

Succoth

The feast of our JOY!

 

HaShem’s people live in Succoth for seven days at rest.

 

It is a mitzvah to feast in the Succah.

 

Pilgrimage festival.

 

Final harvest. Lulav and etrog are waved.

 

The world is judged for water

 

Israel must eat all of their meals in the Succah.



 

 


 

IV. Futures

 

In the future we will still be celebrating this feast. This next scripture from Yehezekel (Ezekiel) is clearly future (the Temple he describes will not even fit on Mt. Zion as we know it!) and yet we still see sin sacrifices:

 

Yehezekel (Ezekiel) 45:21-24 “‘In the first month on the fourteenth day you are to observe the Pesach, a feast lasting seven days, during which you shall eat bread made without yeast. On that day the prince is to provide a bull as a sin offering for himself and for all the people of the land. Every day during the seven days of the Feast he is to provide seven bulls and seven rams without defect as a burnt offering to HaShem, and a male goat for a sin offering. He is to provide as a grain offering an ephah for each bull and an ephah for each ram, along with a hin of oil for each ephah.

 

V. Readings and Chronology

 

The scripture readings for the seventh day of Pesach, in the festival cycle, is:

 

Torah

Shemot (Exodus) 13:17 - 15:26

Bamidbar (Numbers) 28:19-25

 

Haftarah

II Shmuel (Samuel) 22:1-51

 

Nazarean Codicil

I Corinthians 14:1 – 15:34 & Revelation 2:1-7

 

The scripture readings for the eighth day of Pesach, in the festival cycle, when it falls on a weekday is:

 

Torah

Deuteronomy 15:19 – 16:17

Numbers 28:18-25

 

Haftarah

Isaiah 10:32 – 12:6

 

The scripture readings for the eighth day of Pesach, in the festival cycle, when it falls on a weekly Shabbat is:

 

Torah

Deuteronomy 14:22-16:17

Numbers 28:18-25

 

Haftarah

Isaiah 10:32 – 12:6

 

Tehillim (Psalms) 107

 

Nazarean Codicil

1 Corinthians 15:35 – 16:24 & Revelation 2:1-7

 

With the above summary of the Pesach festival Torah readings, lets look at these readings in greater depth as seen through the eyes of the Targum Yonathan. Keep in mind that the Targum is not a translation, but rather a very short commentary explaining and elucidating the text from a Rabbinic perspective. Lets begin with the Torah reading for the seventh day of Pesach.

 

Targum Shemot (Exodus) 13:17 - 15:26 AND it was when Pharoh had released the people, that the Lord did not conduct, them by the way of the land of the Phelishtaee though. that was the near one; for the Lord said, Lest the people be affrighted in seeing their brethren who were killed in war, two hundred thousand men of strength of the tribe of Ephraim, who took shields, and lances, and weapons of war, and went down to Gath to carry off the flocks of the Phelishtaee; and because the transgressed against the statute of the Word of the Lord, and went forth from Mizraim three years before the (appointed) end of their servitude, they were delivered into the hand of the Phelishtaee, who slew them. These are the dry bones which the Word of the Lord restored to life by the ministry (hand) of Yechezekel[39] the prophet, in the vale of Dura; but which, if they (now) saw them, they would be afraid, and return into Mizraim. But the Lord led the people round by the way of the desert of the sea of Suph; and every one of the sons of Israel, with five children, went up from the land of Mizraim. Arid Mosheh carried up the ark in which were the bones of Joseph, from out of the Nilos, and took them with him; because, adjuring, he adjured the sons of Israel, saying, The Lord will surely remember you, and you shall carry up my bones with you.

 

And they journeyed from Succoth, the place where they had been covered with the clouds of glory, and sojourned in Ethan, which is on the side of the desert. [[JERUSALEM. IS. And the Word of the Lord conducted the people by the way of the desert of the sea of Suph; armed in good works went up the sons of Israel, free from the land of Mizraim. 19. For, adjuring, he adjured the sons of Israel, saving, The Lord remembering; will remember you in is Word, and in His good mercies. 20. Which cometh upon the end of the desert.] And the glory of the Shekinah of the Lord went before them by day in the column of the Cloud to lead them in the way, and at night the column of the Cloud removed behind them to darken on their pursuers behind them ; but to be a column of fire to enlighten them before, that they might go forward by day and by night. The column of the Cloud departed not by day, nor the column of fire by night, in leading on before the people. [[JERUSALEM. It ceased not.]

 

XIV. And the Lord spake to Mosheh, saying, Speak to the sons of Israel, that they return back, and encamp before the Mouths of Hiratha, as they lie, created after the manner (likeness) of the children of men, male and female, and their eyes open to them: it is the place of Tanes, which is between Migdol and the sea, before the idol Zephon (Typhon), that is left of all the idols of Mizraim. For the Mizraee will say, More excellent is Baal Zephon than all idols, because it is left, and not smitten; and therefore will they come to worship it, and will find that you are encamped nigh unto it, on the border of the sea.

 

And Pharoh said to Dathan and Abiram, sons of Israel, who had remained in Mizraim, The people of the house of Israel are bewildered in the land: the idol Zephon hath shut them in close upon the desert. [JERUSALEM. 2. And they shall return and encamp before the caravansaries of Hiratha, between Migdol and the sea, before the idol of Zephon, ye shall encamp over against it. And Pharoh will say concerning the people of the sons of Israel, They are losing themselves in the wilderness: the idol of Peor hath shut them in before the desert.] And I will strengthen the design of Pharoh's heart to pursue after them, and I will be glorified upon Pharoh and upon his hosts, and the Mizraee shall know that I am the Lord. And they did so.

 

And the officers who went with Israel announced that the people had fled. [[JERUSALEM. And it was declared to the king.] And the heart of Pharoh and his servants was turned unto evil against the people; and they said, What is this that we have done? for we have released Israel from serving us. And he himself prepared his chariot, and his people led he with him by soft words. And he took six hundred choice chariots, and all the chariots of the Mizraee his servants, who were afraid of the Word of the Lord, lest they should be killed with pestilence, if not with hail: and a third mule, for drawing and following swiftly, he added to each chariot. And the Lord hardened the design of the heart of Pharoh king of Mizraim, and he pursued after the sons of Israel. But the sons of Israel, going out with a high hand, were stronger than the Mizraee. And the Mizraee followed after them, and came upon them as they were encamped by the sea, gathering of pearls and goodly stones, which the river Pishon had carried from the garden of Eden into the Gihon, and the Gihon had carried into the sea of Suph, and the sea of Suph bad cast upon its bank. But all the chariot horses of Pharoh, and his horsemen, and his hosts (were coming) towards the Mouths of Hiratha, which are before the idol Zephon. And Pharoh saw the idol Zephon (still) preserved, and offered oblations before it. And the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, beheld, the Mizraee were pursuing them; and they were sorely afraid, and the children of Israel prayed before the Lord. But the wicked generation said to Mosheh, Because there were no places of burial for us in Mizraim, hast thou led us forth to die in the wilderness ? What hast thou done to us, in bringing us out of Mizraim? Was as not this the word that we spake to thee in Mizraim, Let the Lord manifest Himself over us and judge, saying, Desist from us, and we will serve the Mizraee? for it is better for us to serve the Mizraee than to perish in the desert. [JERUSALEM. 9. But the sons of Israel had gone out free.... Before the caravansaries of Hiratha, before the idol Zephon.]

 

Four parties were made (among) the sons of Israel on the shore of the Weedy Sea: one said, Let us go down into the sea; another said, Let us return into Mizraim; another said Let us set against them the line of battle; and another said Let us raise a cry against them, and confound them. Unto the company which said, Let us go down to the sea, spake Mosheh, Fear not, stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord, which will be wrought for you to‑day. To the company which said, Let us return into Mizraim Mosheh said, You shall not return; for, though you see the Mizraee to‑day, you will see them no more for ever. To the company who said, Let us set against them the line of battle, said Mosheh, Contend not; for the victory shall be wrought among you from the presence of the Lord. And to the company who said. Let us raise a cry against them, Mosheh said, Be silent; and give the glory, and praise, and exaltation to your God.

 

And the Lord said to Mosheh, Why standest thou praying before Me? Behold, the prayers of My people have come before thy own: speak to the sons of Israel, that they go forward; and thou, lift up thy rod, and stretch forth thy hand with it over the sea, and divide it: and the sons of Israel shall go through the midst of ,the sea upon the ground. For, behold, I will harden the design of the heart of the Mizraee, and they will go in after them; and I will be glorified upon Pharoh and upon all his hosts, upon his chariots and his horsemen; that the Mizraee may know that I am the Lord, when I am glorified upon Pharoh, upon his chariots and horsemen.

[JERUSALEM. 13. Four companies made the sons of Israel, standing by the Weedy Sea. One said, Let us fall upon the sea; another said, Let us return to Mizraim; another said, Let us array battle against them; and another said, Let us shout against them to confuse them. To that company who said, Let us fall upon the sea, Mosheh said, Fear not; stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord which shall be wrought for you this day. To the company who said, We will return unto Mizraim, Mosheh said, Fear not; for as you have seen the Mizraee to‑day, you will see them no more in bondage for ever. To the company who said, We will array battle against them, Mosheh said, Fear not; the Lord, in the glory of His Shekinah, will work the victory for your hosts. To the company who had said, Let us shout against them to confound them, Mosheh said, Fear not; stand and be silent; and give the glory, and praise, and exaltation unto Eloha. 15. And the Word of the Lord said to Mosheh, How long standest thou praying before Me ? Heard before Me are thy prayers; but the prayers of My people have preceded thine. Speak to the sons of Israel that they go forward; and thou, lift, up thy rod and stretch forth thy hand.]

 

And the Angel of the Lord who led the way before the hosts of Israel went and came behind them; and the column of the Cloud went from before and stood behind them: because the Mizraee threw darts and stones at the Israelites, but the Cloud intercepted them and it came between the host of Israel and the host of the Mizraee; a cloud, one half of which was light and one half darkness. On the one side it darkened upon the Mizraee, and on the other side it shined upon Israel all night; and one host did not attack the other all the night.

 

And Mosheh stretched out his hand over the sea, with the great and glorious rod which was created at the beginning, and on which were engraven and set forth the Great and Glorious Name, and the ten signs which had smitten the Mizraee, and the three fathers of the world, and the six mothers, and the twelve tribes of Jakob: and straightway the Lord brought a vehement east wind upon the sea all night, and made the sea dry; and divided the waters into twelve divisions according to the twelve tribes of Jacob. [JERUSALEM. 20. And the cloud was half light and half darkness: light, it enlightened upon Israel; and darkness, it darkened upon Mizraim. And those came not against these, to set battle in order, all the night. 21. And he stretched forth.] And the children of Israel went through the midst of the sea upon the ground, and the waters were congealed like a wall, three hundred miles on their right hand and on their left.

 

And the Mizraee followed and went in after them, all the horses of Pharoh, and his chariots and horsemen, into the midst of the sea. And it was that in the morning watch, at the time that the powers on high come to offer praise, the Lord looked forth with anger upon the hosts of the Mizraee from the column of fire, to hurl upon them flakes of fire and hail, and from the column of cloud, and confounded the host of the Mizraee and He brake (or, made rough) the wheels of Pharoh's carriages, so that they drave them with hardship, and that they went on and left them behind. And the Mizraee said one to another, Let us flee from the people of the house of Israel; for this is the Word of the Lord who fought for them in Mizraim.

 

And the Lord said to Mosheh, Stretch forth thy band over the sea, that the waters may return upon the Mizraee, upon their chariots and upon their horsemen. And Mosheh stretched out his hand over the sea, and the sea returned at the time of the morning unto its strength; and the Mizraee fled from before its waves. And the Lord strengthened the Mizraee in the midst of the sea, that they should not (soon) die in the midst of it, that they might receive the punishment which had been sent to them. [JERUSALEM. 24. And it was in the time of the morning that the Word of the Lord looked upon the host of the Mizraee, and hurled upon them bitumen (naphtha), and fire, and stones of hail, and conturbed the host of the Mizraee. And he unloosed the wheels of their carriages, so that they went, dragging them after them: the mules, going after their way before the wheels, were turned, so as that the wheels went before the mules, and they were cast into the sea. The Mizraee answered and said on to another, Let us flee from before the people of the sons of Israel; for this is the Word of the Lord who worketh victory for them in their battles; so that they set the back against Mizraim. 26. Stretch forth. 27. And Mosheh stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned at the time of the morning to its place.] And the waves of the sea returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen. and all the host of Pharoh who had gone in after them, into the sea, not one among them was left. But the sons of Israel walked on the ground in the midst of the sea, and the waters to them were as walls on their right hand and on their left. That day the Lord redeemed and saved Israel from the hand of the Mizraee; and Israel saw the Mizraee, dead and not dead, cast upon the shore of the sea. And Israel saw the power of the mighty hand by which the Lord had wrought the miracles in Mizraim; and the people feared before the Lord, and believed in the Name of the Word of the Lord, and in the prophecies of Mosheh His servant.

 

XV. Behold: then sang, Mosheh and the sons of Israel this song of praise before the Lord and saying they said:

 

Thanksgiving and praise we bring before the Lord Most High, who is glorified above the glorious, and exalted above the exalted; who punisheth by His Word whomsoever glorifieth himself before Him.

 

Therefore when Pharoh the wicked bare himself proudly before the Lord, and, being uplifted in his heart, followed after the people of the sons of Israel, their horses and their chariots He threw and buried in the sea of Suph.

 

[JERUSALEM. Then sang Mosheh and the sons of Israel the praise of this song, before the Lord, saying, to say: Thanksgiving and praise bring we before the Lord, who is high above the highest, and glorified above the glorious, and who punisheth by His Word whom. whomsoever glorifieth himself before Him. The horses and their riders, because they bare themselves proudly and followed after the people of the house of Israel, He hath thrown and buried in the sea of Suph.]

 

The Lord is Mighty, and greatly to be feared over all the world. He spake in His Word, and became to me a God of salvation.

 

From their mothers' breasts even the children have given signs with their fingers to their fathers, and said This is our God, who nourished us with honey from the rock, and with oil from the stone of clay, at the time when our mothers went forth upon the face of the field to give us birth, and leave us there; and He sent an angel who washed us and enwrapped us; and now will we praise Him: He is the God of our fathers, and we will exalt Him.

 

The sons of Israel said, The Lord is a man making war for us from generation to generation He maketh known His power unto the people of the house of Israel. The Lord is His Name; according to His Name, so is His power; His Name shall be blessed for ever and ever.

 

The chariots of Pharoh and his hosts He hath cast into the sea; the goodliest of his young men hath He thrown and drowned in the sea of Suph. The deep covered them over, they went down and are buried in the depths of the sea, and are as silent as a stone.

 

Thy right hand, 0 Lord, how glorious is it in power? Thy right hand, 0 Lord, hath cut off the adversaries of Thy people who rose against them to do them hurt. And in the plenitude and greatness of Thy majesty Thou hast destroyed the walls of the enemies of Thy people.

 

Thou wilt pour upon them Thy fierce anger, Thou wilt consume them as the burning fire prevails over the stubble. For by the Word from before Thee the waters became heaps; they stood, as if bound like skins that confine flowing water, and the depths were congealed in the flood of the great sea.

 

Pharoh the wicked, the hater and adversary, did say, I will follow after the people of the sons of Israel, and will lay waste their camp on the bank of the sea: I will set war in array against them, and kill them, small and great, despoil them of much spoil, bring them back into great captivity, and divide their substance among my people who make war: and when my soul is satisfied with the blood of their slain, I will sheathe my sword, having, destroyed them with my right hand.

 

[JERUSALEM. The Lord is Mighty, and greatly to be praised and feared over all the world. He spake in His Word, and for us became salvation.

 

[From their mothers' breasts have even the children given signs with their fingers unto the fathers, and have said to them, This is our Father, who nourished us with honey from the rock, and gave us oil from the stone of clay.

 

[The sons of Israel answered and said one to another, He is our God, and we will praise Him; the God of our fathers, and we will exalt Him.

 

[The Lord in the glory of His Shekinah is He who worketh victory for your arms. From one generation to another He maketh known His power to the people of the house of Israel.

 

[His Name is the Lord: as is His Name, so is His power; let His name be glorified for ever and ever.

 

[Upon the chariots of Pharoh and his host He shot arrows in the sea; his goodly young men and his men of strength He hath drowned in the sea of Suph. How glorious is Thy right hand, 0 Lord, in power, which bath broken and shattered the walls of the enemies of Thy people!

 

[Pharoh the wicked, the hater and adversary, did say, I will follow after the people of the sons of Israel and will overtake them encamped at the side of the sea. I will lead them captive into great captivity, and despoil, them of great spoil; I will divide their substance among my men of war; and when my soul shall be satisfied with them, I will sheathe my sword, when I shall have destroyed them with my right hand.]

 

Thou didst blow with the wind from before Thee, 0 Lord, and the waves of the sea covered them; they went down, and sank as lead in the proud waters.

 

Who is like Thee among the exalted gods, 0 Lord, who is like Thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders and manifestations for Thy people, the house of Israel ?

 

The sea spake to the earth, Receive but the earth spake to the sea, Receive thy murderers. And the sea was not willing to overwhelm them, and the earth was not willing to swallow them up. The earth was afraid to receive them, lest they should be required from her in the day of the great judgment in the world to come, even as the blood of Habel will be required of her: whereupon Thou, 0 Lord, didst stretch forth Thy right hand in swearing to the earth that in the world to come they should not be required of her. And the earth opened her mouth and consumed them.

 

[JERUSALEM. The sea and the earth had controversy one with the other. The sea said to the earth, Receive thy children; and the earth said to the sea, Receive thy murderers. But the earth willed not to swallow them, and the sea willed not to overwhelm them. And by the Word from before Thee Thou. didst stretch forth Thy right hand in oath., and didst swear unto the earth that Thou wilt not require them of her in the world to come. Then did the earth open her mouth and swallow them up.]

 

Thou hast led in Thy mercy the people whom Thou hast redeemed, and given them the heritage of the mountain of Thy sanctuary, the place of the dwelling of Thy holy Shekinah.

 

The nations will hear and be afraid; terror will lay hold upon them, even upon all the pillars of the inhabitants of the Palestinian land. Behold, then will the princes of the Edomaee be confounded, the strong ones of Moaba will be seized with fear, their heart within them will melt away, even all the pillars of the inhabitants of the Kenaanian land.

 

Through the power of Thy mighty arm, let the terrors of death fall upon them, let them be silent as a stone, till the time when Thy people, 0 Lord, shall have passed the streams of Arnona, till the time when Thy people whom Thou didst ransom shall have crossed the dividing current of Jabeka.

 

Thou wilt bring them in, and plant them on the mountain of Thy sanctuary, the place which Thou hast provided before the throne of Thy glory, the house of Thy holy Shekinah, which Thou, 0 Lord, hast prepared, Thy sanctuary that with both hands Thou hast established.

 

When the people of the house of Israel beheld the signs and manifestations which the Holy One, whose Name be praised, had done at the sea of Suph, and the power of His hand, the children of the captives answering said one to the other, Come, and let us set the crown of majesty on the head of our Redeemer, who maketh to pass over, and passeth not; who changeth, and is not changed; whose is the crown of the kingdom; the King of kings in this world; whose, too, is the kingdom in the world to come, for ever and ever.

 

[JERUSALEM. 16. Thou wilt make the terror of death to fall upon them and undoing, by the power of Thy mighty arm, that they shall be as silent as a stone, until this people whom Thou hast redeemed shall have gone over the dividing stream of Jobeka and that of Jardena; till this people shall have passed over whom Thou hast ransomed for Thy Name. 17. Thou wilt bring them in, and wilt plant them in the mountain of Thy inheritance, the dwelling of the glory of Thy holiness, which Thou 0 Lord, hast prepared for Thyself, the sanctuary of the Lord that with both hands He hath established. 18. When the house of Israel had beheld the signs and wonders that the Holy One, Blessed be He, had wrought for them at the border of the sea, let His great Name be blessed for ever and ever,­ they gave glory and thanksgiving and exaltation unto their God. The sons of Israel answered and said one to another, Come, let us set the crown upon the head of the Redeemer, who causeth to pass over, but is not passed; who changeth, but is not changed; the King of kings in this world; whose, too, is the crown of the kingdom of the world to come, and whose it will be for ever and ever.]

 

For Pharoh's horses with his chariots and horsemen went into the sea, and the Lord made the waters of the sea to return upon them; but the sons of Israel walked upon the land in the midst of the sea, and there did spring up sweet fountains and trees yielding food and verdure and ripe fruits, (even) on the ground of the sea.

 

And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aharon, took a tambourine in her hand, and all the women came out after her, dancing with tambourines and playing on instruments. [JERUSALEM. With tambourines dancing.] And Miriam sang to them, Let us give thanks and praise before the Lord, for might and supremacy are His; above the proud He is glorified, and above the lofty He is exalted. When the wicked, Pharoh in his pride followed after the people of the sons of Israel, his horses and his chariots did He cast and drown in the sea of Suph.

 

And Mosheh made Israel go forward from the sea of Suph, and they went forth into the wilderness of Chalutsa. [JERUSALEM. The way of Chalutsa.] And they journeyed three days in the desert, empty of instruction, and found no water. And they came to Marah, but could not drink the waters of Marah because they were bitter; therefore he called the name of it Marah. And the people murmured against Mosheh, saying, What shall we drink? [JERUSALEM. And the people contended.] And he prayed before the Lord, and the Lord showed him the bitter tree of Ardiphne; and lie wrote upon it the great and glorious Name, and cast it into the midst of the waters, and the waters were rendered sweet. And there did the Word of the Lord appoint to him the ordinance of the Sabbath, and the statute of honouring father and mother, the judgments concerning wounds and bruises, and the punishments wherewith offenders are punished; and there he tried (them) with the tenth trial, and said, If you will truly hearken to the Word of the Lord your God, and do that which is right before Him, and will listen to His precepts and keep all His statutes, all those evil things that I laid upon the Mizraee I will not lay upon thee: but if thou wilt transgress against the word of the law, upon thee shall they be sent. If thou convert, I will remove them from thee; for I am the Lord thy Healer. [JERUSALEM. 25. And Mosheh prayed before the Lord, and the Word of the Lord showed him the tree of Ardiphne, and he cast it into the midst of the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There did the Word of the Lord show unto him statutes and orders of judgment, and there He tried him with trials in the tenth trial. 26. For I am the Lord who healeth thee by My Word.] And they came to Elim; and in Elim were twelve fountains of water, a fountain for each tribe; and seventy palm‑trees, corresponding with the seventy elders of Israel: and they encamped there by the waters. [JERUSALEM. And they came to Elim, where were twelve fountains of water, answering to the twelve tribes of Israel, and seventy palm‑trees, answering to the seventy elders of the sanhedrin of Israel.]

 

The Targum for the Haftarah for the eighth day of Pesach (on a Shabbat) is also most interesting. Consider that we read it on this day because it will be fulfilled on this day. Our readings are prophetic!

 

Targum to Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 10:32 – 12:6 24. ¶ Therefore thus says HaShem God of hosts: “O My people who dwell in Zion, do not be afraid of the Assyrian when he strikes you with his ruler's staff and throws his mastery against you as in the manner of Egypt.

25. For in a very little while the curses will come to an end for you that are of the house of Jacob, and My anger will be upon the peoples who commit the abomination of their destruction."

26. And HaShem of hosts will bring upon him a stroke, as when he struck Midian at the cleft of Oreb; and his stroke will pass from you as the mastery of Pharaoh passed from you at the sea, for prodigies are done for you as in the manner of Egypt.

27. And it will come to pass in that time that his stroke will pass from you, and his yoke from your neckand the Gentiles will be shattered before the Messiah.

28. He has come to Aiath; he has passed through Migron, at Michmash he will appoint the masters of his armies;

29. they cut through, cross over the Jordan, at Geba they lodge themselves; the inhabitants of Ramah are shattered, the men of Gibeah of Saul have fled.

30. Lift up your voice, O men of the daughter of Gallim! Hearken, O you who dwell in Laish, who reside in poor Anathoth!

31. The men ofMadmenah are shattered, the inhabitants of Gebim go into exile.

32. While the day was still young and he had much time to enter, behold Sennacherib the king of Assyria came and stood at Nob, the city of the priestsopposite the wall of Jerusalem, He answered and said to his forces, "Is not this Jerusalem, against which I stirred up all my armies?Behold it is fainter than all the fortresses of the peoples which I have suppressed with the strength of my hands." He stood over it shaking his head, waving back and forth with his hand against the mount of the sanctuary which is in Zion, and against the courts which are in Jerusalem.{P}

33. ¶ Behold, the master ofthe world, HaShem of hosts casts slaughter among his armies as grapes trodden in thepress; and the great in stature will be hewn down and the strong will be humbled.

34. And he will slay the mighty men of his armies whomake themselves mighty with iron, and his warriors will be cast on the land of Israel.‎ {S}

 

11:1. And a king will come forth from the sons of Jesse, and the Messiah will be exalted from the sons of his sons.

2. And a spirit before HaShem will rest upon him (Messiah), a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and might, a spirit of knowledge and the fear of HaShem.

3. And HaShem will bring him (Messiah) near to his fear. And he (Messiah) will not judge by the sight of his eyes, and he will not reprove by the hearing of his ears;

4. but in truth he (Messiah) will judge the poor, and reprove with faithfulness for the needy of the people; and he (Messiah) will strike the sinners of the land with the command of his mouth, and with the speaking of his lips the wicked will die.

5. And the righteous/generous will be all around him (Messiah), and the faithful will be brought near him (Messiah).

6. In the days of the Messiah of Israel will peace increase in the land, and the wolf will dwell with the lamb, and the leopard will lie down with the kid, and the calf and the lion and the fatling together, and a little suckling child will lead them.

7. The cow and the bear will feed; their young will lie down together; and the lion will eat straw like the ox.

8. And the suckling child will play over the hole of an asp, and the weaned child will put his hands on the adder's eyeballs.

9. They will not hurt or destroy in all My holy mountain; for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the fear of HaShem as the waters cover the sea. {S}

10. And it will come to pass in that time that to the son of the son of Jesse who is about to stand as an ensign to the peoples, to him will kingdoms be obedient, and his resting place will be glorious. {P}

11. ¶ And it will come to pass in that time that HaShem will extend his might yet a second time to deliver the remnant of his people which is left, from Assyria, and from Egypt and from Pathros, and from India, and from Elam, and from Babylon, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.

12. And he will raise an ensign for the peoples, and will assemble the outcasts of Israel, and bring near the exile of Judah from the four winds of the earth.

13. And jealousy will pass from those of the house of Ephraim, and those who distress from the of the house of Judah will be destroyed. Those of the house of Ephraim will not be jealous of those of the house of Judah, and those of the house of Judah will not distress those of the house of Ephraim.

14. And they will ally themselves, shoulder to shoulder, to strike the Philistines who are in the west, together they will plunder the sons of the east. They will put forth their hand against Edom and Moab, and the sons of Ammon will be obedient to them.

15. And HaShem will dry up the tongue of the sea of Egypt, and will/lift up the stroke of His might against the Euphrates by his prophets' command, and strike it into seven streams, and they will walk in it with sandals.

16. And there will be a highway for the remnant of His people which is left from the Assyrian, as there was for Israel in the day they came up from the land of Egypt.

 

12:1. And you will say at that time: "I will give thanks before you, HaShem, since I sinned before You Your anger was upon me; now Your anger will turn from me, and you will have compassion on me.

2. Behold, in the Memra o/the God of my salvation I trust, and will not be shaken; for the awesome one, HaShem, is my strength and my song; He has spoken by His Memra, and He has become for me a saviour."

3. And you will accept a renewed teaching with joy from the chosen ones of righteousness/generosity.

4. And you will say at that time: "Give thanks before HaShem, pray in His name, make known His deeds among the peoples, proclaim that His name is strong.

5. Sing praises before HaShem, for He does prodigies; this is disclosed in all the earth.

6. Shout, and sing, O congregation of Zion, for the Great One has promised to rest His Shekhinah in your midst, the Holy One of Israel." {S}

 

VI. Day By Day

 

Now, lets examine each of the seven days of Pesach as they were in the days of the Exodus.

 

Thursday, Nisan 15:

On Thursday, the fifteenth of Nisan, all of HaShem’s host departed from Ramses and on that same day they arrived in Succoth. There the Holy One, Blessed is He, encompassed them with the seven clouds of glory.

 

Friday, Nisan 16:

The next day, the sixteenth of Nisan, they traveled from Succoth and encamped at Etham on the edge of the wilderness.

 

Saturday, Nisan 17:

It was Shabbat so they remained encamped at Etham.

 

Sunday, Nisan 18:

On Sunday, the eighteenth of Nisan, the Bne Israel began to prepare their belongings and animals for departure. Paro’s couriers said to them, “Your period of freedom has ended, it is time for you to return to Egypt, for you said that you would be going on a three day journey”. Israel replied, “It was not by Paro’s permission that we left Egypt. It was HaShem’s exalted hand that brought us out”. The Couriers countered, “Whether you like it or not, in the end you must obey the royal command”. Israel rose up against them and struck them, killing some and injuring others. Those who remained went back to report to Paro.

 

When the Couriers left at midday on the eighteenth of Nisan, Moshe said to Israel, “Go back towards Egypt so that Paro shall not claim that you are fleeing. Let him catch catch up with you near his land and if he has the power to stop you, let him come and stop you”. Moshe sounded the shofar and the people returned to Pi Hahiroth, a day and a half’s journey from Egypt.

 

When the blast of the shofar was heard, those with little faith began to tear out their hair and rend their clothes, for they thought that Moshe was returning them to Egypt. They were calmed when Moshe told them, “HaShem Himself has told me that you are free men. Our apparent retreat is only to entice the Egyptians and mislead them”.

 

Monday, Nisan 19:

The Couriers traveled a day and a half and at the end of Monday, the nineteenth of Nisan, they came to Paro and informed him that the people had fled.

 

Tuesday, Nisan 20:

On Tuesday, the twentieth of Nisan, Paro assembled his chariots and, gathering his nation to accompany him, set out in pursuit of the Bne Israel, catching up to them as they encamped on the banks of the sea.

 

Wednesday, Nisan 21:

On Wednesday, the seventh night of Pesach, the beginning of the twenty-first of Nisan, Israel entered the sea and in the morning they came out and saw what HaShem’s exalted Hand had done to the Egyptians. It was then that Moshe and the Bne Israel sang / will sing their song of praise.

 

VII. Pesach’s Seventh Day Events

 

Since I know that the Torah reading, for the triennial cycle, is in chronological order, I can discern that the following events occurred on the seventh day of HaShem’s Pesach:

 

1. All the inhabitants of the earth, except Noah and his family, died on the seventh day of Pesach. They were all killed by water.

 

2. Sicera died and the Lord’s enemies were destroyed. Deborah sang a song to the Lord. Deborah held court and decided the disputes of the Israelites. HaShem’s enemies were swept away by water from the Kishon river [Shoftim (Judges) 5:21]. Horses were involved.

 

3. All of the Egyptian army, their horses, and Pharaoh died on the seventh day of Pesach. They all were killed by water. Moses and Miriam sang / ‘will sing’ a song to HaShem.

 

4. The Sanhedrin was created this day. Some of HaShem’s people were consumed by fire. HaShem fed His people with meat this day, after they grumbled.

 

From these chronological details, I understand that in the future this will be the day that HaShem renews the earth with fire and kills every one of the “goats”. This day also has to do with settling disputes among HaShem’s people; as we can see from the setting up of the Sanhedrin and the settling of disputes by Deborah.

 

For seven days (starting on Nisan 15 – the first day of Pesach), Moshe was at the burning bush trying to decide to take on the task of the redeemer. On the seventh day of Pesach he accepted that role.

 

Seven days after Pesach, the Israelites and Moses sang / ‘will sing’ the song of Moses.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:1 Then Moses and the Israelites sang / ‘will sing’ this song to HaShem: “I will sing to HaShem, for he is highly exalted. The horse and its rider he has hurled into the sea.

 

Sang is not past tense. It literally means “will sing”. So, it appears that not only was this an historical event, it was also a prophetical event that will occur after the earth is renewed by fire.

 

Midrash Rabbah - Exodus I:24 as R. Jose b. Hanina explained the verse: These are the waters of Meribah (Num. XX, 13), these are the waters which Pharaoh’s astrologers foresaw but of which they mistook the portent, as it says: The people, among whom I am, are six hundred thousand men on foot (ib. XI, 21).[40] Moses said to Israel: ‘You have all been saved because of me.’[41] R. Hanina b. Papa said: That day[42] was the twenty-first of Nisan, and the angels said before God: ‘ Master of the Universe! Shall he who is destined to recite the song of the sea on that day,[43] be smitten by the water on that day! ‘ R. Aha b. Hanina said: That day was the sixth of Sivan and the angels said to God: ‘Shall he who is destined to receive the Torah from Mount Sinai on this day be smitten on this day!’ The question was then asked: Was it not on the seventh of Adar that Moses was born?[44] According to the one who says that he was cast into the river on the sixth of Sivan, there is no difficulty, for from the seventh of Adar till the sixth day of Sivan accounts for the three months he was hidden; but according to the one who says it was the twenty-first of Nisan, the dates do not harmonize. But this is no refutation, for that year was a leap-year, and most of the first month [Adar] and most of the last month [till the twenty-first of Nisan] along with the whole of the middle month [Adar II] are reckoned as three calendar months.

 

The following pasuk from the Nazarean Codicil also speaks of this seventh day:

 

I Corinthians 10:1-11 For I do not want you to be ignorant of the fact, brothers, that our forefathers were all under the cloud and that they all passed through the sea. They were all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea. They all ate the same spiritual food And drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them, and that rock was Mashiach. Nevertheless, God was not pleased with most of them; their bodies were scattered over the desert. Now these things occurred as examples to keep us from setting our hearts on evil things as they did. Do not be idolaters, as some of them were; as it is written: “The people sat down to eat and drink and got up to indulge in pagan revelry.” We should not commit sexual immorality, as some of them did--and in one day twenty-three thousand of them died. We should not test HaShem, as some of them did--and were killed by snakes. And do not grumble, as some of them did--and were killed by the destroying angel. These things happened to them as examples and were written down as warnings for us, on whom the fulfillment of the ages has come.

 

From the above passage, I gather that the same water that killed the Egyptians also changed the state of the Israelites to a higher state of holiness. They literally had returned to the state that man was in the garden of Eden (paradise). From this I understand that in the future renewal of the earth, by fire, we too will pass through the fire, unharmed, and we will be literally baptized with fire, into Yeshua! John the Baptist spoke of this in:

 

 Matityahu (Matthew) 3:1-13 In those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the Desert of Judea And saying, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near.” This is he who was spoken of through the prophet Yeshayah (Isaiah): “A voice of one calling in the desert, ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.’“ John’s clothes were made of camel’s hair, and he had a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. People went out to him from Jerusalem and all Judea and the whole region of the Jordan. Confessing their sins, they were baptized by him in the Jordan River. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to where he was baptizing, he said to them: “You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath? Produce fruit in keeping with repentance. And do not think you can say to yourselves, ‘We have Abraham as our father.’ I tell you that out of these stones HaShem can raise up children for Abraham. The ax is already at the root of the trees, and every tree that does not produce good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire. “I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing floor, gathering his wheat into the barn and burning up the chaff with unquenchable fire.” Then Yeshua came from Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized by John.

 

Luqas (Luke) 3:15-18 The people were waiting expectantly and were all wondering in their hearts if John might possibly be the Mashiach. John answered them all, “I baptize you with water. But one more powerful than I will come, the thongs of whose sandals I am not worthy to untie. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. His winnowing fork is in his hand to clear his threshing floor and to gather the wheat into his barn, but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.” And with many other words John exhorted the people and preached the good news to them.

 

So, I understand from the above verses that John spoke these words on the seventh day of Pesach and was prophesying about the future events that would take place on this day.

 

Peter spoke of the renewal of the earth, by fire, in:

 

II Peter 3:3-13 First of all, you must understand that in the last days scoffers will come, scoffing and following their own evil desires. They will say, “Where is this ‘coming’ he promised? Ever since our fathers died, everything goes on as it has since the beginning of creation.” But they deliberately forget that long ago by God’s word the heavens existed and the earth was formed out of water and by water. By these waters also the world of that time was deluged and destroyed. By the same word the present heavens and earth are reserved for fire, being kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men. But do not forget this one thing, dear friends: With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day. The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise, as some understand slowness. He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance. But the day of the Lord will come like a thief. The heavens will disappear with a roar; the elements will be destroyed by fire, and the earth and everything in it will be laid bare. Since everything will be destroyed in this way, what kind of people ought you to be? You ought to live holy and godly lives As you look forward to the day of God and speed its coming. That day will bring about the destruction of the heavens by fire, and the elements will melt in the heat. But in keeping with his promise we are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth, the home of righteousness.

 

Yeshua also spoke of this future day in:

 

Matityahu (Matthew) 19:23-29 Then Yeshua said to his disciples, “I tell you the truth, it is hard for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven. Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.” When the disciples heard this, they were greatly astonished and asked, “Who then can be saved?” Yeshua looked at them and said, “With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.” Peter answered him, “We have left everything to follow you! What then will there be for us?” Yeshua said to them, “I tell you the truth, at the renewal of all things, when the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. And everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or fields for my sake will receive a hundred times as much and will inherit eternal life.

 

Paul talks about our reward with respect to the seventh day of Pesach in:

 

I Corinthians 3:9-15 For we are God’s fellow workers; you are God’s field, God’s building. By the grace God has given me, I laid a foundation as an expert builder, and someone else is building on it. But each one should be careful how he builds. For no one can lay any foundation other than the one already laid, which is Yeshua Mashiach. If any man builds on this foundation using gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay or straw, His work will be shown for what it is, because the Day will bring it to light. It will be revealed with fire, and the fire will test the quality of each man’s work. If what he has built survives, he will receive his reward. If it is burned up, he will suffer loss; he himself will be saved, but only as one escaping through the flames.

 

* * *

 

We find no direct association in the Torah between the last day of Pesach and any event or occurrence in our nation’s history. In truth, a miraculous event occurred on the seventh day of Pesach. After the Jews left Egypt, Pharaoh had a change of heart. He started pursuing the nation of Israel. The nation had reached the shores of the Yam Suf (popularly translated as Red Sea, more accurately translated Reed Sea) and could travel no further. On the day that we celebrate the seventh day of Pesach, HaShem split the Yam Suf, so that the Jews were able to cross the sea on what was miraculously dry land. After the Jews crossed the sea, the waters came tumbling down upon the Egyptians, who were still in hot pursuit of the Jews. The Egyptians were drowned, and the entire nation of Israel was saved. This event would seem fitting for commemorating with a holiday such as the seventh day of Pesach. Yet, not only is this event not celebrated, but the day that it occurred is not event mentioned in the Torah! Why is such a momentous day in our history passed over?

 

The Sefer HaToda’ah writes that the Jews were only given holidays by HaShem that celebrated the salvation of the Jews. They were never given holidays that commemorated the downfall of their enemies. HaShem does not celebrate the downfall and destruction of the wicked, as they are His creations. Therefore, the Jewish nation as well does not celebrate the downfall and destruction of the wicked. It is for this reason that there is no connection made between the splitting of the Yam Suf and the seventh day of Pesach. We cannot celebrate the downfall of the Egyptians. However, the Jews were indeed saved on this day, and sang songs of praise and thanks, half Hallel, to HaShem for their salvation. We too sing a half Hallel to HaShem on this day, just as our forefathers did. We can and do mark the occasion of our salvation. We cannot and do not, however, mark the occasion of our enemies’ demise.

 

The Midrash does tell us that the splitting of the Yam Suf did take place on the seventh day of Pesach.

 

Midrash Rabbah - Exodus XIX:7 Warn Israel that just as I, who created the world, commanded them to observe the Sabbath as a memorial of the work of Creation, as it says: Remember the sabbath day (Ex. XX, 8), so also do ye remember the miracles I performed for you in Egypt and the anniversary of the day of your departure,’ as it says: Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt (ib. XIII, 3). Why? For by strength of hand the Lord brought you out from this place  (ib.).2 And there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee (ib. 7), for seven days, corresponding to the seven days which intervened between the redemption and the dividing of the Red Sea. Just as there were seven days of creation at the beginning, and just as the Sabbath is observed at the end of seven days, so shall these seven days be kept each year, as it says: Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance in its season from year to year (ib. 10).

 

 


 

 

 

Other events that occurred on the seventh day of Pesach:

 

 Hag ha-Matzah - Seventh day. Shemot (Exodus) 12:17-20

 The Omer, day six.

 Water swells on the earth in the days of Noah. Day 111. Bereshit (Genesis) 7:24

 The Lord wipes out the world with water in Noah’s day. Noah and his family preserved. Bereshit (Genesis) 6:6-7 - AC

 Jacob left Laban’s home to return to Israel. Bereshit (Genesis) 31:17, Book of Jubilees.

 Yocheved hides Moses after a six month and one day pregnancy - day 44. Artscroll Mesorah on Shavuot, page 61.

 Pharaoh’s decree against Israelite male infants was cancelled. Sotah 12b

 Israelites camp at the tower, towards the mouth of the gorges, opposite the hidden destroyer. Shemot (Exodus) 33:7

 Moses tells the Israelites to see HaShem’s salvation. Shemot (Exodus) 14:13

 Israelites are baptized in the Red sea. Shemot (Exodus) 14:26-29

 HaShem removes wheels from Egyptian chariots. Shemot (Exodus) 14:24-25

 HaShem destroys Pharaoh’s army, chariots, and horses with water. Shemot (Exodus) 14:21-28, TC, AC

 Moses and Miriam sing the song of Moses to the Lord. Shemot (Exodus) 15

 God refines Israel with fire, destroying the outskirts. Bamidbar (Numbers) 11:1-3, TC

 Israelites crave meat from God. Bamidbar (Numbers) 11:4, TC [45]

 God forms the Sanhedrin from the spirit of Moses. Bamidbar (Numbers) 11:16-25, TC

 Joshua and the Israelites march around Jericho – day 7. Jericho’s walls recede. Jericho is destroyed. Joshua 6:1ff

 God destroys Sicera’s army, chariots, and horses with water. Shoftim (Shoftim (Judges)) 4:4 - 5:31, TC

 Deborah holds court to decide disputes of the Israelites. Shoftim (Shoftim (Judges)) 4:4-5, TC

 Deborah sings a song to the Lord. Shoftim (Shoftim (Judges)) 5, TC

 David sings a song to the Lord. 2 Shmuel (Samuel) 22, AC[46]

 Yeshua’s alive! It is resurrection day 4.

 Peter is freed by an angel. II Luqas (Acts)12:3-10

 Disciples were gathered together for prayer. II Luqas (Acts) 12:3-12

 Peter is released from prison by an angel. Peter went to Mary’s house (the mother of John Mark) II Luqas (Acts) 12:3-12

 Herod searches for Peter, cross examines guards, executes guards, and travels from Judea to Caesarea. II Luqas (Acts) 12:18-19

 This is the day God will destroy the wicked and baptize the righteous with fire. Matityahu (Matthew) 3:11, 2 Peter 3:3-16, TC

 Solemn Assembly required on this last day of the Hag ha-Matzah. Devarim (Deuteronomy) 16:8

 


VIII. In The Machzor

 

The Machzor, the festival prayer book, has the following liturgical poem which incorporates the knowledge of the Sages, regarding the events of the seventh day of Pesach:

 

Pesach – The faithful ones sang a song to Him, ‘And HaShem saved on that day’ – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:30 That day HaShem saved Israel from the hands of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians lying dead on the shore.

Pesach – May a heavenly voice be heard, ‘Israel is saved by HaShem, an eternal salvation‘ – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 45:17 But Israel will be saved by HaShem with an everlasting salvation; you will never be put to shame or disgraced, to ages everlasting.

Pesach – The redeemed ones crossed with an exalted hand, and Israel saw the [great] hand [of God] – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:31 And when the Israelites saw the great power HaShem displayed against the Egyptians, the people feared HaShem and put their trust in him and in Moses his servant.

Pesach – The exalted One, with the might of His glory, once again may my Lord [redeem us] with His hand – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 11:11-12 In that day the Lord will reach out his hand a second time to reclaim the remnant that is left of his people from Assyria, from Lower Egypt, from Upper Egypt, from Cush, from Elam, from Babylonia, from Hamath and from the islands of the sea. He will raise a banner for the nations and gather the exiles of Israel; he will assemble the scattered people of Judah from the four quarters of the earth.

Pesach – The multitude of His armies with sufficient goodness, walked on dry land in the middle of the sea – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:19 When Pharaoh’s horses, chariots and horsemen went into the sea, HaShem brought the waters of the sea back over them, but the Israelites walked through the sea on dry ground.

Pesach – He shall have raised His hand with the power of His spirit, and HaShem shall have dried up the tongue of the sea – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 11:15 HaShem will dry up the gulf of the Egyptian sea; with a scorching wind he will sweep his hand over the Euphrates River. He will break it up into seven streams so that men can cross over in sandals.

Pesach – He raged against them with the clearly inscribed [plagues], the Egyptian camp, with pillar of fire and cloud – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:24 During the last watch of the night HaShem looked down from the pillar of fire and cloud at the Egyptian army and threw it into confusion.

Pesach – He shall create new wonders besides the old: blood, fire, and columns of smoke – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yoel (Joel) 2:30 I will show wonders in the heavens and on the earth, blood and fire and billows of smoke.

Pesach – He planned strategies to destroy his enemies, and the Children of Israel went forth with an exalted hand – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:8 HaShem hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, so that he pursued the Israelites, who were marching out boldly.

Pesachsalvation and powerful peace, in gladness shall you go out, and in peace – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 55:12 You will go out in joy and be led forth in peace; the mountains and hills will burst into song before you, and all the trees of the field will clap their hands.

Pesach – the crowning glory of the Anamite [Egyptians, their first born,] to slay, for there is no home in which there is no corpse – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 12:30 Pharaoh and all his officials and all the Egyptians got up during the night, and there was loud wailing in Egypt, for there was not a house without someone dead.

Pesach – to push aside the nations that talk in vain, and thus shall be the plague – the Pesach of the future.

Tehillim (Psalm) 2:1 Why do the nations conspire and the peoples plot in vain?

 

Zecharyia (Zechariah) 14:12 This is the plague with which HaShem will strike all the nations that fought against Jerusalem: Their flesh will rot while they are still standing on their feet, their eyes will rot in their sockets, and their tongues will rot in their mouths.

Pesach – He opened the sealed [Egyptian] gates, but HaShem passed over the Jewish doorway – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 12:23 When HaShem goes through the land to strike down the Egyptians, he will see the blood on the top and sides of the doorframe and will pass over that doorway, and he will not permit the destroyer to enter your houses and strike you down.

Pesach – the wondrous strength of the Master and Ruler, protect and rescue, leap and cause escape – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 31:5 Like birds hovering overhead, HaShem Almighty will shield Jerusalem; he will shield it and deliver it, he will ‘pass over’ it and will rescue it.”

Pesach – those remaining became the treasured planting, because HaShem did battle for them against Egypt – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:25 He made the wheels of their chariots come off so that they had difficulty driving. And the Egyptians said, “Let’s get away from the Israelites! HaShem is fighting for them against Egypt.”

Pesach – for the future ransom of captives, HaShem shall go forth and battle those nations – the Pesach of the future.

 

Zecharyia (Zechariah) 14:3 Then HaShem will go out and fight against those nations, as he fights in the day of battle.

Pesach – the opening verse the prophetess [Miriam] repeated, ‘Sing to HaShem for He is exalted above the arrogant!’ – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:21 Miriam sang to them: “Sing to HaShem, for he is highly exalted. The horse and its rider he has hurled into the sea.”

Pesach – anticipating the sign that will have been fulfilled, sing to HaShem for He will have established grandeur – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 12:5 Sing to HaShem, for he has done glorious things; let this be known to all the world.

Pesach – He darkened the fire’s light for His [Egyptian] enemies, but for all the Children of Israel there was light – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 10:23 No one could see anyone else or leave his place for three days. Yet all the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.

Pesach – may your Creator’s utterance find favor, ‘Rise up and shine, for your light has come’ – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 60:1 “Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of HaShem rises upon you.

Pesach – they praised Him with the full measure of His strength, for HaShem redeemed His people – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 44:23 Sing for joy, O heavens, for HaShem has done this; shout aloud, O earth beneath. Burst into song, you mountains, you forests and all your trees, for HaShem has redeemed Jacob, he displays his glory in Israel.

 

Rut (Ruth) 1:6 When she heard in Moab that HaShem had come to the aid of his people by providing food for them, Naomi and her daughters-in-law prepared to return home from there.

Pesach – the powerful praise inherent in His Name, our Redeemer, HaShem, Master of Legions, is His name – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 47:4 Our Redeemer--HaShem Almighty is his name--is the Holy One of Israel.

Pesach – may He increase salvation upon salvations, remembering His covenant to save with love, let the report regarding Egypt be heard regarding Tyre, with mirth, with glad song, with abundant gladness – and said unanimously.

Pesach – [Israel was] fortunate to shine with the light of life, for all of the Children of Israel there was light – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Iyov (Job) 33:30 To turn back his soul from the pit, that the light of life may shine on him.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 10:23 No one could see anyone else or leave his place for three days. Yet all the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.

Pesach – with this same sign [of light] they will again be blessed, rise up and shine for your light has come – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 60:1 “Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of HaShem rises upon you.

Pesach – the redeemed one praised you at that time, HaShem saved on that day – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:30 That day HaShem saved Israel from the hands of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians lying dead on the shore.

Pesach – O Exalted One, hurry our salvation, HaShem is our King, He is our Savior – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 33:22 For the HaShem is our judge, the HaShem is our lawgiver, the HaShem is our king; it is he who will save us.

Pesach – they embittered them with hardship and discouraged them, the day after the Pesach offering, they went forth – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Bamidbar (Numbers) 33:3 The Israelites set out from Rameses on the fifteenth day of the first month, the day after the Pesach. They marched out boldly in full view of all the Egyptians,

Pesach – and a day of vengeance shall you see, for in gladness shall you go forth – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 55:12 You will go out in joy and be led forth in peace; the mountains and hills will burst into song before you, and all the trees of the field will clap their hands.

Pesach – the pure ones were exceedingly awestruck, when the water became a wall for them – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:22 And the Israelites went through the sea on dry ground, with a wall of water on their right and on their left.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:29 But the Israelites went through the sea on dry ground, with a wall of water on their right and on their left.

Pesach – may He endow those who anticipate Him with His goodness, may He lead them beside flowing water – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 49:10 They will neither hunger nor thirst, nor will the desert heat or the sun beat upon them. He who has compassion on them will guide them and lead them beside springs of water.

Pesach – the Pure One multiplied His humility over them and HaShem went before them – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 13:21 By day HaShem went ahead of them in a pillar of cloud to guide them on their way and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel by day or night.

Pesach – may He awaken the words of my prophetic vision, ‘For HaShem goes before you’ – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 52:12 But you will not leave in haste or go in flight; for HaShem will go before you, the God of Israel will be your rear guard.

Pesach – the prophetess [Miriam] responded properly, ‘Sing to HaShem for He is exalted above the arrogant’ – the Pesach of Egypt..

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:21 Miriam sang to them: “Sing to the HaShem, for he is highly exalted. The horse and its rider he has hurled into the sea.”

Pesach – may its scoffers be downtrodden, play music to HaShem for He has established grandeur – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 12:5 Sing to HaShem, for he has done glorious things; let this be known to all the world.

Pesach – a pleasant song of thanksgiving, ‘God is my might and praise’ – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:2 HaShem is my strength and my song; he has become my salvation. He is my God, and I will praise him, my father’s God, and I will exalt him.

Pesach – my multitudes shall sing the song, ‘For HaShem, God, is my Might and my Praise’ – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 12:2 Surely God is my salvation; I will trust and not be afraid. HaShem, HaShem, is my strength and my song; he has become my salvation.”

Pesach – to return the treasured ones to the longed-for Land, they walked on the dry land amid the sea – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:19 When Pharaoh’s horses, chariots and horsemen went into the sea, HaShem brought the waters of the sea back over them, but the Israelites walked through the sea on dry ground.

Pesach – in the future He shall return their captivity, from Chamas and from the isles of the sea – the Pesach of the future.

 

Tehillim (Psalm) 126:1 (A song of ascents.} When HaShem brought back the captives to Zion, we were like men who dreamed.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 11:11 In that day the Lord will reach out his hand a second time to reclaim the remnant that is left of his people from Assyria, from Lower Egypt, from Upper Egypt, from Cush, from Elam, from Babylonia, from Hamath and from the islands of the sea.

Pesach – the taskmasters fled from before them, for HaShem did battle for them – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:25 He made the wheels of their chariots come off so that they had difficulty driving. And the Egyptians said, “Let’s get away from the Israelites! HaShem is fighting for them against Egypt.”

Pesach – may He remove His people’s trouble and assuage them, when HaShem will go forth and do battle – the Pesach of the future.

 

Zechariah 14:3 Then HaShem will go out and fight against those nations, as he fights in the day of battle.

Pesach - the Illuminated One cut down and shattered when the Egyptians forced the people [to leave the land] – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 12:33 The Egyptians urged the people to hurry and leave the country. “For otherwise,” they said, “we will all die!”

Pesach – He shall blow away the spirit of the belligerent, ten men shall clasp them – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Zechariah 8:23 This is what HaShem Almighty says: “In those days ten men from all languages and nations will take firm hold of one Jew by the hem of his robe and say, ‘Let us go with you, because we have heard that God is with you.’“

Pesach – their flesh melted and was destroyed, none remained of them save one – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:28 The water flowed back and covered the chariots and horsemen—the entire army of Pharaoh that had followed the Israelites into the sea. Not one of them survived.

 

Tehillim (Psalm) 106:11 The waters covered their adversaries; not one of them survived.

Pesach – may He grant salvation for those who rely on Him, and that there not remain a remnant of the House of Esau – the Pesach of the future.

 

Obadiah 1:18 The house of Jacob will be a fire and the house of Joseph a flame; the house of Esau will be stubble, and they will set it on fire and consume it. There will be no survivors from the house of Esau.” HaShem has spoken.

Pesach – even the sucklings played on the drums to declare His Oneness, ‘This is my God and I shall glorify Him’ – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:2 HaShem is my strength and my song; he has become my salvation. He is my God, and I will praise him, my father’s God, and I will exalt him.

Pesach – the treasured ones shall say thus, ‘Behold, this is our God’ – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 25:9 In that day they will say, “Surely this is our God; we trusted in him, and he saved us. This is HaShem, we trusted in him; let us rejoice and be glad in his salvation.”

Pesach – the exultations of holiness in the feminine gender, ‘This shirah – song’ – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:1 Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to HaShem: “I will sing to HaShem, for he is highly exalted. The horse and its rider he has hurled into the sea.

Pesach – but He shall sanctify it and turn it to masculine, ‘Sing to HaShem a new shir – song’ the Pesach of the future.

 

Tehillim (Psalm) 96:1 Sing to HaShem a new song; sing to HaShem, all the earth.

Pesach – You leapt to exact retribution for [Israel’s] pain, from the dungeon, You have acquired this people – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:16 Terror and dread will fall upon them. By the power of your arm they will be as still as a stone--until your people pass by, HaShem, until the people you bought pass by.

Pesach – may He bare His arm and His might, to acquire the remnant of His people – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 52:10 HaShem will lay bare his holy arm in the sight of all the nations, and all the ends of the earth will see the salvation of our God.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 11:11 In that day the Lord will reach out his hand a second time to reclaim the remnant that is left of his people from Assyria, from Lower Egypt, from Upper Egypt, from Cush, from Elam, from Babylonia, from Hamath and from the islands of the sea.

Pesach – He brought out His loved ones in the afternoon when He bewildered the Egyptian camp – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:24 During the last watch of the night HaShem looked down from the pillar of fire and cloud at the Egyptian army and threw it into confusion.

Pesach – to return upon them their recompense, HaShem will wreak great confusion upon them – the Pesach of the future.

 

Zecharyia (Zechariah) 14:13 On that day men will be stricken by HaShem with great panic. Each man will seize the hand of another, and they will attack each other.

Pesach – They decided to speak up and exalt when they saw the great hand [that God inflicted upon Egypt] – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:31 And when the Israelites saw the great power HaShem displayed against the Egyptians, the people feared HaShem and put their trust in him and in Moses his servant.

Pesach – may He satiate with the shine of His glory, Joseph may my Lord increase His power a second time – the Pesach of the future.

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 66:11 For you will nurse and be satisfied at her comforting breasts; you will drink deeply and delight in her overflowing abundance.”

 

Yeshayah (Isaiah) 11:11 In that day the Lord will reach out his hand a second time to reclaim the remnant that is left of his people from Assyria, from Lower Egypt, from Upper Egypt, from Cush, from Elam, from Babylonia, from Hamath and from the islands of the sea.

Pesach – a prophetic song they foresang to the Inscrutable One, ‘HaShem shall reign forever’ – the Pesach of Egypt.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:18 HaShem will reign for ever and ever.”

Pesach – in Zion they shall sing to their Redeemer, ‘May HaShem reign forever’ – the Pesach of the future.

 

Tehillim (Psalm) 146:10 HaShem reigns forever, your God, O Zion, for all generations. Praise HaShem.

Pesach – Regal strategies by which to redeem the praiseworthy, You save Your beloved, and You delighted HaShem’s upright nation, at the appropriate time, those whom You took to Yourself saw HaShem’s works, then Moses and the Children of Israel chose to sing, with mirth, with glad song with abundant gladness – and said unanimously.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:1 Then Moses and the Israelites sang / will sing this song to HaShem: “I will sing to HaShem, for he is highly exalted. The horse and its rider he has hurled into the sea.

 


IX.  In The Haggada

 

The Haggada talks about the plagues that were inflicted upon the Egyptians at the Yam Suf. These plagues need to be understood in the context. To understand we need to be familiar with the plagues as mentioned in the psalms:

 

Tehillim (Psalms) 78:48-50 He gave over their cattle also to the hail, and their flocks to fiery bolts. 49 He sent forth upon them the fierceness of His anger, wrath, and indignation, and trouble, a sending of messengers of evil. 50 He levelled a path for His anger; He spared not their soul from death, but gave their life over to the pestilence;

 

Now, lets look at what the haggada does to understand these enigmatic pesukim.

 

Rabbi Yose the Galilean said: How do you know that the Egyptians were stricken by ten plagues in Egypt, and then were struck by fifty plagues at the sea? In Egypt it says of them, “The magicians said to Pharaoh, ‘This is the finger of God’. At the sea it says, “Israel saw the great hand that HaShem laid against Egypt; and the people feared HaShem, and they believed in HaShem and in His servant Moses”. Now, how often were they smitten by ‘the finger’? Ten plagues! Thus you must conclude that in Egypt they were smitten by ten plagues, at the sea they were smitten by fifty plagues!

 

Rabbi Eliezer said: How do we know that each individual plague which the Holy One, blessed be He, brought upon the Egyptians in Egypt consisted of four plagues? For it is said: “He sent against them His fierce anger, fury, and indignation, and trouble, a discharge of messengers of evil”: ‘Fury’, is one; ‘Indignation’, makes two; ‘Trouble’, makes three; ‘Discharge of messengers of evil’, makes four. Thus you must now say that in Egypt they were struck by forty plagues, and at the sea they were stricken by two hundred plagues.

 

Rabbi Akiva said: How do we know that each individual plague which the Holy One, blessed be He, brought upon the Egyptians in Egypt consisted of five plagues? For it is said: “He sent against them his fierce anger, fury, and indignation, and trouble, a discharge of messengers of evil”: “His fierce anger”, is one; “fury”, makes two; “indignation”, makes three; “trouble”, makes four; “discharge of messengers of evil”, makes five. Thus you must now say that in Egypt they were struck by fifty plagues, and at the sea they were stricken by two hundred and fifty plagues.

 

X.  In The Body

 

The Egyptian exile was a birth process, as we looked in-depth in the study titled: THEBIRTH. The Egyptians were the placenta for the Bne Israel during their gestation in Mitzrayim.[47] On the seventh day of Pesach, after the birth of the Bne Israel, the placenta became the afterbirth, a worn out, useless organ that was now dead.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. 23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. 24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch HaShem looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians, 25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for HaShem fighteth for them against the Egyptians. 26 And HaShem said unto Moshe, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen. 27 And Moshe stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and HaShem overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea. 28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.

 

With the collapse of the placenta and its expulsion from the body, comes the realization that with the birth of the Bne Israel, the Egyptians are no longer needed. The Egyptians are cast out of the womb of Mitzrayim, dead:

 

Shemot (Exodus) 14:30 Thus HaShem saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore.

 

The Bne Israel were united into a single body with a single purpose when they were born. The ending of the cycle of pregnancy and birth resulted in a unified song:

 

Shemot (Exodus) 15:1 Then sang[48] Moshe and the children of Israel this song unto HaShem, and spake, saying, I will sing unto HaShem, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. 2 HaShem is my strength and song, and he is become my salvation: he is my God, and I will prepare him an habitation; my father’s God, and I will exalt him. 3 HaShem is a man of war: HaShem is his name. 4 Pharaoh’s chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea: his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red sea. 5 The depths have covered them: they sank into the bottom as a stone. 6 Thy right hand, HaShem, is become glorious in power: thy right hand, HaShem, hath dashed in pieces the enemy. 7 And in the greatness of thine excellency thou hast overthrown them that rose up against thee: thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as stubble. 8 And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were gathered together, the floods stood upright as an heap, and the depths were congealed in the heart of the sea. 9 The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them. 10 Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them: they sank as lead in the mighty waters. 11 Who is like unto thee, HaShem, among the gods? who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders? 12 Thou stretchedst out thy right hand, the earth swallowed them. 13 Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people which thou hast redeemed: thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation. 14 The people shall hear, and be afraid: sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants of Palestina. 15 Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed; the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them; all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away. 16 Fear and dread shall fall upon them; by the greatness of thine arm they shall be as still as a stone; till thy people pass over, HaShem, till the people pass over, which thou hast purchased. 17 Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance, in the place, HaShem, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in, in the Sanctuary, O Lord, which thy hands have established. 18 HaShem shall reign forever and ever. 19 For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and HaShem brought again the waters of the sea upon them; but the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea. 20 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. 21 And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to HaShem, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

 

This song that Moshe and the Bne Israel sang and will sing[49], is a great hint to the future Techiyat HaMeitim, the resurrection of the dead.

 

Az Yashir, the song at the sea, symbolizes the birth of the Jewish people. It marks the first time that the nation, acting as one, recognized both their redemption and their redeemer. One cannot find any other place in Jewish history where, unified, the People of Israel burst spontaneously into song praising HaShem and his miracles.

 

Pesachim 117a Rab Judah said in Samuel's name: The Song in the Torah[50] was uttered by Moshe and Israel when they ascended from the [Red] Sea. And who recited this Hallel[51]? The prophets among them ordained that Israel should recite it at every important epoch and at every misfortune — may it not come upon them! and when they are redeemed they recite [in gratitude] for their redemption.

 

X. Conclusion

 

If you look closely at the events that happened on this day, you can see a consistent theme:

 

HaShem frees His people. The wicked try to take them back. HaShem stops the wicked.

 

My study, so far, leads me to the conclusion that the seventh day of Pesach was not fulfilled in the days when Yeshua walked on the earth, but, they will be fulfilled at the end of the seventh millennium when Yeshua renews the earth with fire.

 


This study was written by

Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David

(Greg Killian).

Comments may be submitted to:

 

Rabbi Dr. Greg Killian

4544 Highline Drive SE

Olympia, WA 98501

 

Internet address:  gkilli@aol.com

Web page:  http://www.betemunah.org/

 

(360) 584-9352

 

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Send comments to Greg Killian at his email address: gkilli@aol.com


 



[1] Pesach - פסח is the Hebrew word for Passover,

[2] Passover lasts eight days in the diaspora and the seventh day Sabbath is celebrated for both the seventh and the eighth days.

[3] Shemot (Exodus) chapter 14.

[4] Midrash Rabbah - Exodus 19:7

[5] Tosefta, Berachot 2:1; Shulchan Aruch HaRav 66:12.

[6] The benediction, ‘Blessed . . . who hast kept us in life . . . to reach this season’ (cf. P.B. p. 231) which is said only on the first day of a festival. R. Johanan regards the eighth day as a separate festival.

[7] The Eighth Day of Solemn Assembly, which is regarded as a festival distinct from that of Tabernacles.

[8] That the Eighth Day is a festival of its own.

[9] None of which obtains on the Eighth Day.

[10] Not, as the first Tanna stated, with three logs.

[11] Infra 48b; and only for the seven days.

[12] Of Pesach.

[13] Pes. 120a.

[14] Since even on the first day of Pesach the eating of unleavened bread is voluntary.

[15] The first night.

[16] The next three statements point out that in the section dealing with the sacrifices of the festival, Num. XXIX, 12-39, there are differences between the first seven days, and the Eighth Day either in respect of the laws of the sacrifices or the expressions used in connection with them; proving that the latter is a separate festival. These differences are that (a) on each of the seven days a number of bullocks were sacrificed while on the Eighth Day only one was offered (v. 36). (b) the descriptions of the sacrifices of the second to the seventh day begin with the word ‘and’ (‘And on the day’). suggesting continuity, while that of the Eighth Day commences ‘On the eighth day’ omitting the ‘and’, (c) on the seventh day it was ‘According to their ordinance’, connecting it with the previous days whereas the Eighth Day has, ‘according to the ordinance’.

[17] The Eighth Day.

[18] The first seven days.

[19] The Eighth Day.

[20] The first seven days.

[21] Which is regarded as a separate festival, nevertheless one can make good thereon the festal-offering due on the first day of Tabernacles.

[22] Eccl. I, 15.

[23] V. Lev. XVIII, 6-18.

[24] I.e., that if the festal-offering was not brought earlier, it can still be offered up on the last day of Tabernacles.

[25] Deut. XVI, 8.

[26] Lev. XXIII, 36; Num. XXIX, 35.

[27] I.e., in the case of the seventh day of Pesach which is essentially part of the Pesach Festival.

[28] I.e., in the case of the eighth day of Tabernacles, even though it has the status of a separate festival; v. infra 17a.

[29] I.e., the word ,rmg is redundant; this makes the inference by analogy irrefutable.

[30] That one can make good on the last day the festal-offering of the first.

[31] Cf. Yoma 3a.

[32] Cf. A.V. Marg. ‘restraint’ in Deut. XVI, 8; Lev. XXIII, 36.

[33] Deut. XVI, 8.

[34] V. p. 7, n. 8.

[35] An authority quoted in Mishnah and Baraitha in contradistinction to Amora such as R. Johanan above. V. Glos.

[36] Lev. XXIII, 41.

[37] Ibid. I.e., you can bring the festal-offering on every festival day in the month.

[38] The second ‘it’ of the verse.

[39] Ezekiel chapter 37.

[40] This passage, abbreviated here, is given fully in Gen. R. 47:3.

[41] An explanation of the unusual word hkdr (‘on foot’).

[42] When he was cast into the river.

[43] The seventh day of Pesach.

[44] Meg. 13b, Kid. 38a.

[45]  TC - Triennial Torah Cycle.

[46]  AC - Annual Torah cycle.

[47] Mitzrayim is the translitteration of the Hebrew word for Egypt.

[48] See also Revelation 15:3

[49] Revelation 15:3

[50] ‘Torah’ bears here its narrower connotation of Pentateuch. The ‘Song’ referred to is that contained in Ex. XV.

[51] Ps. 113-118. [MS.M. (gloss) inserts: Moshe and Yisrael recited it].