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Mashiach and The Number Ten

(A Unity Made Of Parts)

By Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David (Greg Killian)

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I. Introduction. 1

II. In Creation. 3

III. The Ten Dreams. 5

IV. The Red Heifer 5

V. The Ten Songs. 5

VI. The Harp of Ten Strings 6

VII. The Ten Commandments 6

VIII. The Ten Praises. 12

IX. The Ten Nations. 12

X. The Ten Generations. 17

XI. The Ten Stages. 20

XII. The Ten Angelic Levels 21

XIII. The Ten Tribes. 21

XIV. Ten in the Mishkan. 21

XV. Tishre Ten. 23

XVI. Many Tens. 26

XVII. Avraham was tested 10 times 30

XVII. The Ten Plagues. 31

XIX. The Ransom Money. 33

XX. Miracles at the Sea of Reeds 34

XXI. The Ten Kal Vachomer 34

XXII. The Foundation of All Sums 35

XXIII. The Descents. 36

XXIV. The World To Come. 36

XXV. Created On the Eve of The Sabbath. 37

XXVI. The Ten Famines. 38

XXVII. The Ten Counts. 38

XXVIII The Tithe. 39

 

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I. Introduction

 

As we begin this fascinating study of the number ten, please keep in mind that Chazal (our Sages) have taught that every occurrence of the number ten, and indeed every other number, is related to every other occurrence, whether in the Tanach[1] or within the natural world. Thus a great deal of insight can be gained by comparing and analyzing different sets of ten.

 

Ten is a unity made up of parts. The nature of the parts is subsumed into the nature of the unity. This explains how a minyan of ten men in the synagogue becomes a spiritual entity at prayer time. An entity capable a saying kaddish and other special prayers that can only be said when a congregation of at least ten men is present.

 

We learned in our study of the Temple that the body of Mashiach is a body composed of the righteous of Israel. This body is a unity composed of parts. The body is composed of Israel and the head is Mashiach. This is the ultimate expression of ten: A unity made of parts. As we explore various aspect of the number ten, notice this constant refrain that illustrates a unity made of parts.

 

The number ten is represented by the Hebrew letter yud - י, the smallest Hebrew letter of all. And, whereas all other Hebrew letters are usually composites of other letters, for example, in Sofrus, the style of writing used for a Sefer Torah, an aleph is made up of two yuds (י) and a vav (ו), the yud is not composed of other letters, therefore, it also represents sublime simplicity.

 

The number ten represents both plurality and unity.

 

The Talmud says that ten symbolizes perfection and completeness. Every number until ten is viewed as incomplete. HaShem's presence resides among ten, and no activity of sanctification can take place with less than ten.[2] The number ten symbolizes a community. The number ten is used to represent a spiritual full set. The number ten is a full integer count, that is the symbol of being complete.

 

The number ten is a traditional symbol of fulfillment, a return to unity after having gone through the experience represented by single-digit numbers.

 

The number ten symbolizes the concept of totality or all inclusiveness.

 

The number ten represents kedushah.

 

Hakham Shaya Karlinsky: Commenting on the writings of the Maharal of Prague on Pirke Avot, says the following:

 

Man is composed of a physical body created from the earth, and a soul that emanates from the heavens. The "distance" from the earth until the heaven is considered to be, embodied in the number ten[3]. These lines of the Maharal are rooted in Kabbalah. So there are ten distinct elements related to man's creation, five of which are material matters that are part of man's physical dimension, and five of which are spiritual matters that are part of man's transcendent dimension.

 

There are ten major parts of man's body which parallel this division: The two eyes, the two ears and the tongue are considered the more spiritual parts of man. The two feet, the two hands and the sexual organ are the five that are closer to the physical side of man.

 

The activities of the eyes (sight) ears (hearing) and tongue (speech) do not need any physical contact with the material in order for them to function. Sight is a perception of things which are distant from man, and with which he has no tangible interaction. Hearing is also a perception of things with which man does not have direct contact, although it is not as abstract as sight. (Man needs to be closer to an object to hear it than to see it; sound waves travel more slowly, are more tangible and physically accessible, and more easily measurable than light waves/particles.) Speech is also an activity connected to the spiritual and intellectual dimension of man. The hands, feet and the sexual organ are connected to the more physical activities of man, and they are considered closer to the earth.

 

We also find in the Ten Words (Decalogue) that five of them are connected to the heaven and five are connected to the earth. The first five are activities which relate to G-d. [This includes "Honour your father and mother," whose honouring is equated with that of G-d, as we are taught in Kiddushin 30b. When a person honors their parents, G-d considers it as if He lived among them and also received honor.] The last five are activities between fellow human beings who dwell on the earth. This encompasses the entire human being whose spiritual side emanates from the heaven and whose body derives from the earth, with the distance between these two locations represented by the number ten.

 

This human being, belonging to both the heaven and the earth is connected to five material elements of his existence and five spiritual elements of his existence.

 

In each of the material elements, a surplus is actually destructive, where anything which deviates from the proper measure, is in fact considered a deficiency. But in the non-material elements which are connected to the spiritual dimension, a surplus is a virtue.

 

* * *

 

"The number’ten' in Scripture or the Oral Torah, is a reference to the Ten Heavenly Emanations by means of which HaShem's Presence descends from heaven and makes itself manifest. All of these phenomena were aspects of revelation. Through each, man and the universe were elevated to new perceptions of HaShem's holiness and presence." [4]

 

We will see that ten specifically refers to the Word of HaShem.

 

Therefore, when we study how HaShem acts through the various permutations of ten, we are looking at each detail with a double perspective: The particular point which each act expresses and the unifying element which interlocks all of HaShem's activities into one seamless entity, as befits HaShem Who is One.

 

II. In Creation

 

The number ten (10) is associated with Mashiach. The unity of creation was manifested with ten utterances. With ten utterances of, “and G-d said: Let there be…”, He created the universe[5]:

 

1

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:1

In the beginning G-d created the heavens and the earth.

2

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:3

And G-d said, "Let there be light," and there was light.

3

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:6

And G-d said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water."

4

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:9

And G-d said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear." And it was so.

5

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:11

Then G-d said, "Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds." And it was so.

6

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:14-15

And G-d said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, And let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth." And it was so.

7

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:20

And G-d said, "Let the water teem with living creatures, and birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky."

8

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:22

G-d blessed them and said, "Be fruitful and increase in number fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth."

9

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:24

And G-d said, "Let the land produce living creatures according their kinds: livestock, creatures that move along the ground, and wild animals, each according to its kind." And it was so.

10

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:26-27

Then G-d said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all creatures that move along the ground." So G-d created man in his own image, in the image of G-d he him; male and female he created them.

 

Rosh HaShana 32a MISHNA. THERE SHOULD BE RECITED NOT LESS THAN TEN KINGSHIP VERSES, TEN REMEMBRANCE VERSES, AND TEN SHOFAR VERSES. R. JOHANAN B. NURI SAID: IF THE READER SAYS THREE FROM EACH SET[6] HE HAS FULFILLED HIS OBLIGATION.

 

Rashi’s Commentary for: Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 1:16 Wash, cleanse yourselves Voweled with a ‘patach,’ the imperative form, since it is derived from רְחַץ , but רָחֲצוּ , [in the past tense, is voweled with a ‘kamatz’ because it is derived from רָחַץ ].

 

Wash, cleanse yourselves, remove, learn, seek, strengthen, perform justice, plead, go Ten exhortations of the expression of repentance are [listed] here, corresponding to the Ten Days of Penitence and to the ten verses of Kingship, Remembrances, and Shofaroth [in the musaf service of Rosh Hashanah].

 

GEMARA. To what do these ten kingship verses correspond? — R. Levi said, To the ten praises that David uttered in the book of Psalms. But there are a large number of praises there? — It means, those among which occurs, Praise him with the blowing of the shofar.[7] R. Joseph said: To the ten commandments that were spoken to Moshe on Sinai.[8] R. Joseph said: To the ten commandments that were spoken to Moshe on Sinai.[9] R. Johanan said: To the ten utterances by means of which the world was created.[10] Which are they? The phrase’and he said’ occurs in the account of the creation only nine times? — The words’in the beginning’ are also an utterance, as it is written, By the word of the Lord the heavens were made.[11]

 

The fact that HaShem (The Speaker) created the universe with ten words, or sayings, agrees with John’s masorah. It is intriguing to note that, as The Creator’s tool, He is called The Word:

 

Yochanan (John) 1:1-3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with G-d, and the Word was G-d. He was with G-d in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made.

 

During shacharit each morning, we invoke one of HaShem’s names that memorializes His work in creation. We invoke the name: “Praised Be the One Who Spoke and the World Came into Being”. It is interesting to note that the name HaShem chose to use in creation is Elohim. This name hints at the idea of the infinite (plural name) with the finite, creation.

 

Notice also that the ten sayings can be easily divided into two groups of five. The first five do not have any animals or men, while the second set of five have men or animals. I find this concept easy to remember because I have ten fingers divided into two sets of five fingers on each of two hands.

 

Midrash Rabbah - Bereshit (Genesis) XVII:1 1. AND HaShem GOD SAID: IT IS NOT GOOD THAT THE MAN SHOULD BE ALONE (II, 8). We learnt: By ten commands was the world created,[12] and these are they: In the beginning G-d created (Gen. I, 1); And the spirit (Ruach) of G-d hovered[13]; And G-d said: Let there be light; And G-d said: Let there be a firmament; And G-d said: Let the waters be gathered together; And G-d said: Let the earth put forth grass; And G-d said: Let there be lights And G-d said: Let the waters swarm; And G-d said: Let the earth bring forth; And G-d said: Let us make man. Menachem b. R. Jose excluded,’And the spirit of G-d hovered over the face of the waters,’ and included, AND HaShem GOD SAID: IT IS NOT GO0D THAT THE MAN SHOULD BE ALONE. R. Jacob b. R. Kirshai said: A separate command was devoted to the wind.[14]

 

* * *

 

Chagigah 12a R. Zulra b. Tobiah said that Rab said: by ten things was the world created: By wisdom and by understanding, and by reason, and by strength, and by rebuke, and by might, by righteousness and by judgment, by lovingkindness and by compassion. By wisdom and understanding, for it is written: The Lord by wisdom founded the earth; and by understanding established the heavens. By reason, for it is written: By His reason the depths were broken up. By strength and might, for it is written: Who by His strength setteth fast the mountains, Who is girded about with might. By rebuke, for it is written: The pillars of heaven were trembling, but they became astonished at His, rebuke. By righteousness and judgment, for it is written: Righteousness and judgment are the foundation of Thy throne. By lovingkindness and compassion, for it is written: Remember, O Lord, Thy compassions and Thy mercies; for they have been from of old.

 

III. The Ten Dreams

 

There are ten dreams (chalom - חולם) in Bereshit (Genesis). What makes this remarkable is that there are no other dreams in the Torah. This makes these dreams especially important because the creation of the concept of a dream is found with the first occurrence of the word.

 

Torah

Subject

Bereshit 20:3ff

Avimelech and Sarah.

Bereshit 28:12ff

Jacob’s ladder.

Bereshit 31:10ff

Jacob’s speckled sheep.

Bereshit 31:24ff

Laban told to leave Jacob alone.

Bereshit 37:5ff

Yosef and the sheaves.

Bereshit 37:9ff

Yosef and the sun, moon, and stars.

Bereshit 40:9ff

Yosef and the cupbearer.

Bereshit 40:16ff

Yosef and the baker.

Bereshit 41:1ff

Paro and the cows.

Bereshit 41:5ff

Paro and the sheaves.

 

IV. The Red Heifer

 

The number ten (10) is associated with Mashiach. The red Heifer illustrates this idea:

 

From the time when the Red Heifer mitzva was first given to the Jewish people until the destruction of the Second Temple, there were nine Red Heifers burned altogether. The first one was brought by Moshe, and its ashes were used during the entire existence of the First Beit HaMikdash with a little remaining, after its destruction. The second was brought by Ezra HaSofer (Ezra the Scribe); and the remaining seven were brought from Ezra until the destruction of the Second Beit HaMikdash (Temple). The tenth will be brought by the Mashiach, who will come speedily in our days[15].

 

Moshe prepared the first one,

Ezra prepared the second. "The Sages say,’Seven Parot Adumot since Ezra. And who prepared them?

Simeon the Just

Simeon the Just prepared two

Johanan the High Priest

Johanan the High Priest prepared two

Eliehoenai the son of Hokkof (Caiaphas) and

Hanamel the Egyptian and

Ishmael ben Piabi prepared one each."

 

The red heifer mitzva is an eternal statute, Numbers 19:10.

 

Since all aspects of Torah are precise, it follows that there is a conceptual relationship between the laws of the Parah Adumah and the coming of Mashiach. This is why the Rambam mentions the awaiting of Mashiach’s arrival in the laws of Parah Adumah, although the Mashiach is mentioned in Yad HaChazakah before the laws of the Parah Adumah.

 

The ashes of the Parah Adumah, offering purification from the defilement of death, allude to the time of Mashiach’s coming, the time of redemption from exile, when Jews sunder their bonds with spiritual death, for they then all cleave to HaShem and are thus vitally alive.

 

May Mashiach come and redeem us speedily in our days. In the words of the Rambam: “May he be speedily revealed, Amen. May He so will it.”

 

Ten also means "forever".

 

V. The Ten Songs

 

The number ten (10) is associated with Mashiach. There are nine songs in the Tanakh. Mashiach will sing the tenth song.

 

1. Adam composed the Sabbath song: Psalm 92

2. Moshe composed the sea song: Shemot (Exodus) 15:1

3. Israel sang the well song: Numbers 21:17

4. Moshe, before he died, sang: Devarim (Deuteronomy) 32:1

5. Yehoshua (Joshua) sang and the sun stopped: Yehoshua (Joshua) 10:12

6. Deborah and Barak sang: Shoftim (Judges) 5:1

7. Hannah and her son sang: 1 Samuel 2:1

8. David sang for the miracles: II Samuel 22:1

9. Solomon sang the: Song of Songs

10: Israel sings the redemption song: Isaiah 30:29. The tenth and greatest song will be sung by the Jewish people when HaShem redeems them from the present exile.


While the first nine songs are called shira, in the feminine gender, the tenth one is termed Shir (masculine gender), as it says, "On that day shall this Shir be sung in the land of Yehuda".
[16]


After the redemptions that occasioned the first nine songs new hardships invariably followed. Each redemption is therefore likened to the plight of a woman who undergoes the pains of pregnancy, labor, and birth, only to be followed by the selfsame discomfort of another pregnancy.

The tenth song, though, will mark the end of all exiles; it will not be followed by any suffering or hardship.
This tenth song is described in:

 

Revelation 5:9-10 And they sang a new song: "You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, because you were slain, and with your blood you purchased men for G-d from every tribe and language and people and nation. You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to serve our G-d, and they will reign on the earth."

 

VI. The Harp of Ten Strings

 

It is said that the kinar, the small harp, will have ten strings after Mashiach comes:

 

Arachin 13b NO MINOR COULD ENTER THE COURT OF THE SANCTUARY etc. Whence do we know that? — R. Johanan said: Because Scripture said, Then stood Jeshua with his sons and his brethren, and Kadmiel and his sons, the sons of Judah together, to have the oversight of the workmen in the house of G-d.[17]

 

NOR DID THEY JOIN IN THE SINGING WITH THE HARP AND LYRE, BUT WITH THE MOUTH ALONE etc. One would say therefore that harp and lyre are different instruments. Is this to say that our Mishna is not in accord with R. Judah, for it was taught: R. Judah said, The harp of the Sanctuary had seven cords, as it is written: In Thy presence is fitness [soba’] of joy;[18] read not, fullness [soba’], but seven [sheba’]! The harp of the messianic days has eight cords, as it is said: For the leader on the Sheminith,[19] [i.e., the eighth string]. The harp of the world to come has ten cords, as it is said: With an instrument of ten strings, and with the psaltery; with a solemn sound upon the harp.[20] Furthermore, it is said: Give thanks unto the Lord with harp, sing praises unto Him with the psaltery of ten strings. Sing unto Him a new song; play skillfully midst shouts of joy.[21] You could say also that [our Mishna will be] in accord with R. Judah: Since, in the world to come, it will have more cords and its sound will be stronger, like that of a harp, he calls it’harp’.                   

 

VII. The Ten Commandments

 

The number ten (10) is associated with Mashiach. Through the ten words (commandments) spoken at Sinai, HaShem compressed His entire Torah and gave it to His people.

 

 Shemot (Exodus) 20:1-17

 

And G-d spoke all these words, saying:

 

1. I am HaShem thy G-d, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

 

2. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor the form of anything that is in the heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down to them, nor be induced to serve them; for I the Lord thy G-d am a zealous G-d, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me; but showing loving-kindness unto the thousandth generation that love Me and keep My commandments.

 

3. Thou shalt not take the name of HaShem thy G-d in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that takes His name in vain.

 

4. Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work; but on the seventh day, a Sabbath unto HaShem thy G-d, thou shalt not do any work, neither thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea and all that is therein, and He rested on the seventh day; wherefore HaShem blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.

 

5. Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which HaShem thy G-d gives thee.

 

6. Thou shalt not murder.

 

7. Thou shalt not commit adultery.

 

8. Thou shalt not steal.

 

9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.

 

10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbor's.

 

Together, all of HaShem’s people, they proclaimed: "We will do and we will listen"[22]. Each year on the holiday of Shavuot, this historic event is relived as we commit ourselves anew to observing the Torah.

 

In Pesikta Rabbati 21.18-19[23] it is said that the ten commandments should be paired off with the ten words [va-yomer, “and (G-d) said,” occurs ten times in the story of creation] whereby the world was created.

 

1.         “I HaShem am your G-d”, is paired with, “And G-d said: Let there be light”, Bereshit (Genesis) 1:3, and of light Scripture says elsewhere: “The Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light”.[24]

 

2.         “You shall have no other gods beside Me”, is paired with: “And G-d said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, that it may separate water from water” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:6. The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Make a separation between Me and between idolatry, which in the verse: “They have forsaken Me, the fountain of Living waters, and hewed them out cisterns”[25] is implied to be stored and stagnant [waters].”

 

3.         “You shall not swear by the name of HaShem your G-d”, is paired with, “G-d said, Let the water ... be gathered into one area” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:9. The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “The waters accord Me honor and restrain themselves; and will you not accord Me honor in not swearing by My name falsely?”

 

4.         “Remember the Sabbath day”, is paired with, “And G-d said, let the earth sprout vegetation” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:11. For the Holy One, blessed be He, stated that however little you feast on the Sabbath you will still be regarded as one who honors it. Remember that the world was created in the hope that man would not sin; and men can live without sinning because they can subsist if necessary only on grasses and herbs that the earth puts forth.

 

5.         “Honor your father”, is paired with, “G-d said, Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:14. The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Behold, for thee I created two lights, thy father and thy mother. Take care in the honor due them.”

 

6.         “You shall not murder”, is paired with, “G-d said, Let the waters bring forth swarms”, - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:20. The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Be not like those fish, the big ones that swallow the little ones, as is intimated in the verse, “Wherefore ... holdest Thou Thy peace ... and makest men as the fishes of the sea?”[26]

 

7.         “You shall not commit adultery”, is paired with, “G-d said, Let the earth bring forth every kind of living creature” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:24. The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Behold I created for thee thy mate. Each and every one should cleave to his mate, to his own kind.”

 

8.         “You shall not steal”, is paired with, “G-d said, See I give you every seed bearing plant” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:29. The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Not one of you shall put forth his hand in theft of the property or the money of his neighbor, you may take only ownerless property, such as seed-yielding herbs.” R. Hiyya taught, That which is guarded within a garden it is forbidden to take, the taking would be robbery; but that which is not guarded in a garden may be taken, and the taking is not robbery.

 

9.         “You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor, etc.”, is paired with, “And G-d said, Let us make man in our image” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:26. The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Behold for thee I created thy neighbor in My likeness. And thou, by such acts as call for punishment, wouldst swallow and make an end of thy neighbor. Do not then bear false witness against thy neighbor.”

 

10.       “You shall not covet”, is paired with, “G-d said, It is not good for man to be alone, I will make a fitting helper for him” - Bereshit (Genesis) 2:18. The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Behold, I created a mate for thee. Let each and every one of you cling to his mate. Let not a man of you covet the wife of his neighbor.”

 

Why the ten singled-out statements? What makes them so special? Jewish tradition holds that inside of or included in these ten statements is the entire Torah. In other words, the ten statements are actually ten categories into which each of the 613 Torah commandments falls. Name any commandment and I'll bet we can figure out where it belongs: Holidays, which sanctify time like Shabbat belong in the fourth commandment about observing Shabbat. Dealing honestly in business falls under not bearing false testimony. Keeping kosher along with other commandments that don't have an apparent logical reason fall under number one which constitutes a basic belief in HaShem and the call to heed His commandments whether or not they make sense to us[27].

 

Indeed, according to our Sages[28], the entire Torah, comprising both the Written Law and the Oral Law, was carved into these tablets.

 

The Ten Commandments are divided into two tablets. The first tablet, with it’s five commands, speaks about our relationship with HaShem. The second tablet, with it’s five commands, speaks about our relationship with our fellow man. And the two tablets are parallel: The first commandment, "Believe in HaShem", corresponds to the sixth commandment, "Don't murder."

 

What's the connection?

 

Every human being is created in the image of HaShem. When we love HaShem, we love His children. And the recognition that HaShem encompasses everything teaches us that in the spiritual dimension, there are no conventional boundaries between entities. It's all one unit.

 

When we appreciate that we are all one people, then hurting the other guy, paying him back, is as ridiculous as hurting yourself. If you're slicing a carrot and accidentally cut your finger, do you take the knife and cut your other hand in revenge? Of course not. Why? Because your other hand is part of you, too.


 

Decalogue

Creation

Sefira

Rationale

 

 

 

 

“I HaShem am your G-d”

“And G-d said: Let there be light” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:3

Keter

“The Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light”.[29]

“You shall have no other gods beside Me”

“And G-d said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, that it may separate water from water” Bereshit (Genesis) 1:6

Chakmah

The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Make a separation between Me and between idolatry, which in the verse: “They have forsaken Me, the fountain of Living waters, and hewed them out cisterns”[30] is implied to be stored and stagnant [waters].”

“You shall not swear by the name of HaShem your G-d”

“G-d said, Let the water ... be gathered into one area” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:9

Binah

The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “The waters accord Me honor and restrain themselves; and will you not accord Me honor in not swearing by My name falsely?”

“Remember the Sabbath day”

“And G-d said, let the earth sprout vegetation” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:11

Chesed

For the Holy One, blessed be He, stated that however little you feast on the Sabbath you will still be regarded as one who honors it. Remember that the world was created in the hope that man would not sin; and men can live without sinning because they can subsist if necessary only on grasses and herbs that the earth puts forth.

“Honor your father”

“G-d said, Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:14

Gevurah

The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Behold, for thee I created two lights, thy father and thy mother. Take care in the honor due them.”

“You shall not murder”

“G-d said, Let the waters bring forth swarms”, - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:20

Tipheret

The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Be not like those fish, the big ones that swallow the little ones, as is intimated in the verse, “Wherefore ... holdest Thou Thy peace ... and makest men as the fishes of the sea?”[31]

“You shall not commit adultery”

“G-d said, Let the earth bring forth every kind of living creature” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:24

Netzach

The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Behold I created for thee thy mate. Each and every one should cleave to his mate, to his own kind.”

“You shall not steal”

“G-d said, See I give you every seed bearing plant” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:29

Hod

The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Not one of you shall put forth his hand in theft of the property or the money of his neighbor, you may take only ownerless property, such as seed-yielding herbs.” R. Hiyya taught, That which is guarded within a garden it is forbidden to take, the taking would be robbery; but that which is not guarded in a garden may be taken, and the taking is not robbery.

“You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor, etc.”

“And G-d said, Let us make man in our image” - Bereshit (Genesis) 1:26

Yesod

The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Behold for thee I created thy neighbor in My likeness. And thou, by such acts as call for punishment, wouldst swallow and make an end of thy neighbor. Do not then bear false witness against thy neighbor.”

“You shall not covet”

“G-d said, It is not good for man to be alone, I will make a fitting helper for him” - Bereshit (Genesis) 2:18

Malkuth

The Holy One, blessed be He, said, “Behold, I created a mate for thee. Let each and every one of you cling to his mate. Let not a man of you covet the wife of his neighbor.”

 

 


* * *

 

The Zohar finds a connection between an apparently random set of events that occurred in series of tens. The world was created with ten declarations, the Torah was given with Ten Commandments, and G-d sent ten plagues to force the Egyptians to release the Jewish people. According to the Zohar, these events are related in the following way: The ten declarations of creation were transformed into the Ten Commandments by the ten plagues.

 

The Maharal of Prague explains the first part of the connection in his book Gevurot HaShem[32]:

 

The way to approach the ten plagues is to look at each plague as turning off one of G-d's ten declarations of creation. By the culmination of the plagues all of them had been shut down one by one. Thus His first speech’let there be light' was shut down by the plague of darkness; His tenth speech’let us make man' was shut down by the plague of the first born; His creation of vegetation by the plague of locusts that consumed all vegetation; and so on through them all.

 

Ramban, on Shemot 20:13, gives us a tremendous insight:

 

With reference to the writing on the Tablets of Law, it would appear that the first five commandments were on one Tablet, for they are for the glory of the Creator, as I have mentioned, and the second five commandments were on another Tablet. Thus there were five opposite five, something like the Rabbis mentioned in the Book of Creation:[33] "With ten emanations,[34] intangible, as is the number of ten fingers, five opposite five, and the Covenant of the Unity placed directly in the middle." From this it will be made clear to you why there were two Tablets, for up to Honor your father, it corresponds to the Written Torah, and from there on it corresponds to the Oral Torah. It would appear that it is this that our Rabbis, of blessed memory, have alluded to in saying[35] that the two Tablets correspond to heaven and earth,[36] to a groom and bride,[37] to the two friends [of the groom and bride], and to the two worlds [this world and the World to Come]. All these constitute one allusion, and the person learned in the mystic lore of the Cabala will understand the secret.

 

VIII. The Ten Praises

 

The number ten (10) is associated with Mashiach. With ten expressions of Hallel (praise), messiah King David concluded Tehillim (Psalms) which speak of redemption that will be wrought by Mashiach:

Psalm 150:1-6

1.     Praise HaShem. Praise G-d in his sanctuary;

2.     praise him in his mighty heavens.

3.     Praise him for his acts of power;

4.     praise him for his surpassing greatness.

5.     Praise him with the sounding of the shofar,

6.     praise him with the harp and lyre,

7.     Praise him with tambourine and dancing,

8.     praise him with the strings and flute,

9.     Praise him with the clash of cymbals, praise him with resounding cymbals.

10. Let everything that has breath praise HaShem. Praise HaShem.

 

In Psalm 150, notice that the first five praises relate to things of G-d (infinite), while the second set of five are related to the things of men (finite).

 

Pesachim 117a The Book of Psalms was uttered with ten synonyms of praise, viz.: nizzuah [victory], niggun [melody], maskil,[38] mizmor [psalm], Shir [song], ashre [happy], tehillah [praise], tefillah [prayer], hodayah [thanksgiving] [and] hallelujah. The greatest of all is’hallelujah,’ because it embraces the [Divine] Name and praise simultaneously.[39]

 

IX. The Ten Nations

 

The number ten (10) is associated with Mashiach. The first time that the land of Israel is promised to Avraham , covenantially, is in Bereshit (Genesis) 15:17ff. This passage talks about the land of ten different peoples. This is the first, and only time, we see the ten nations enumerated. From now on all promises will talk about five, six, or seven nations.

 

First let's look at the promise HaShem gave to Avraham :

 

Bereshit (Genesis) 15:17-20 When the sun had set and darkness had fallen, a smoking firepot with a blazing torch appeared and passed between the pieces. On that day HaShem made a covenant with Abram and said, "To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates-- The land of the

Kenites,

Kenizzites,

Kadmonites,

Hittites,

Perizzites,

Rephaites,

Amorites,

Canaanites,

Girgashites and

Jebusites."

 

The Raphaites are not found in any of the lists of peoples of the land, again. The reason is found in:

 

Devarim (Deuteronomy) 3:10-11 We took all the towns on the plateau, and all Gilead, and all Bashan as far as Salecah and Edrei, towns of Og's kingdom in Bashan. (Only Og king of Bashan was left of the remnant of the Rephaites. His bed was made of iron and was more than thirteen feet long and six feet wide. It is still in Rabbah of the Ammonites.)

 

So, The Raphaites are out of the picture.

 

Canaan was the son of Ham according to Bereshit (Genesis) 10:6. Canaan was the father of the

 

Hittites,

Jebusites,

Amorites,

Girgashites,

Hivites.

 

So, we know the origins of six of the peoples which Yehoshua (Joshua) will fight. We can also see that five of these peoples are related to Canaan and the other five are not.

 

Who are the Kenites? The Talmud tells part of the story:

 

Sotah 11a - R. Hiyya b. Abba said in the name of R. Simai: There were three in that plan, viz. Balaam, Job and Jethro. Balaam who devised it was slain; Job who silently acquiesced was afflicted with sufferings; Jethro, who fled, merited that his descendants should sit in the Chamber of Hewn Stone,[40] as it is said: And the families of scribes which dwelt at Jabez; the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, the Sucathites. These are the Kenites that came of Hammath, the father of the house of Rechab;[41] and it is written: And the children of the Kenite, Moshe’s father-in-law etc.[42]

 

I Chronicles 2:54-55 The descendants of Salma: Bethlehem, the Netophathites, Atroth Beth Joab, half the Manahathites, the Zorites, And the clans of scribes who lived at Jabez: the Tirathites, Shimeathites and Sucathites. These are the Kenites who came from Hammath, the father of the house of Recab.

 

The Talmud also gives us additional clues as to who the Kenites and the Kenizzites are:

 

Baba Bathra 56a - Rab Judah said in the name of Samuel: All the land which G-d showed Moshe[43] is subject to [the obligation],of tithe. Which part of the land does this exclude?[44] _ It excludes the Kenite, the Kenizite and the Kadmonite. It has been taught: R. Meir says that [these are] the Nabateans, the Arabians and the Salmoeans.[45] R. Eliezer says they are Mount Seir, Ammon and Moab. R. Simeon says they are Ardiskis, Asia and Aspamia.[46]

 

So, the Talmud gives us a clue that the Kenites, Kenizzites, and Kadmonites are not part of the land that was shown to Moshe, but it was part of the land promised to Avraham .

 

Devarim (Deuteronomy) 34:1-4 Then Moshe climbed Mount Nebo from the plains of Moab to the top of Pisgah, across from Jericho. There HaShem showed him the whole land--from Gilead to Dan, All of Naphtali, the territory of Ephraim and Manasseh, all the land of Judah as far as the western sea, The Negev and the whole region from the Valley of Jericho, the City of Palms, as far as Zoar. Then HaShem said to him, "This is the land I promised on oath to Avraham , Isaac and Jacob when I said,’I will give it to your descendants.' I have let you see it with your eyes, but you will not cross over into it."

 

Rashi gives us some insight into these three peoples and their lands:

 

[I have given Mount Seir] to Esau for an inheritance from Abraham. I gave ten nations to Abraham, seven of them for you [the seven of Canaan], and the Kenites, the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites (Gen. 16:18-21), who are Ammon, Moab, and Seir. One of them is for Esau, and the other two are for the children of Lot (Gen. Rabbah 44). As a reward [for Lot] for going with him [Abraham] to Egypt and for keeping silent when Abraham said, regarding his wife, “She is my sister,” He treated him [Lot] as his [Abraham’s] son [to inherit part of the land promised to Abraham] (Gen. Rabbah 44).

 

Where did the Kenites dwell in the days of the Shoftim (Judges)?

 

Shoftim (Judges) 1:16 The descendants of Moshe’s father-in-law, the Kenite, went up from the City of Palms with the men of Judah to live among the people of the Desert of Judah in the Negev near Arad.

 

From the above passage we also learn that Moshe’s father-in-law was a Kenite.

 

Why did the Kenites survive Yehoshua (Joshua)'s onslaught?

 

I Samuel 15:5-6 Saul went to the city of Amalek and set an ambush in the ravine. Then he said to the Kenites, "Go away, leave the Amalekites so that I do not destroy you along with them; for you showed kindness to all the Israelites when they came up out of Egypt." So the Kenites moved away from the Amalekites.

 

What is to become of the Kenites?

 

Numbers 24:20-22 Then Balaam saw Amalek and uttered his oracle: "Amalek was first among the nations, but he will come to ruin at last." Then he saw the Kenites and uttered his oracle: "Your dwelling place is secure, your nest is set in a rock; Yet you Kenites will be destroyed when Asshur takes you captive."

 

Who are the Kenizzites? Well, Caleb was the son of a Kenizzite:

 

Numbers 32:10-12 HaShem's anger was aroused that day and he swore this oath:’Because they have not followed me wholeheartedly, not one of the men twenty years old or more who came up out of Egypt will see the land I promised on oath to Avraham , Isaac and Jacob-- Not one except Caleb son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite and Yehoshua (Joshua) son of Nun, for they followed HaShem wholeheartedly.'

 

We learned earlier, in the Talmud, that the Kenizzites were not in the land that Moshe saw from mount Nebo, but, they were part of the land promised to Avraham .

 

Who are the Kadmonites? Our Genesis passage where Avraham is promised the land of the Kadmonites, is the only place in Tanach where we find this word. The Talmud, in Baba Bathra 56a, is the only Talmudic reference to these people.

 

So, the Kenites, Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites were dwelling in a part of the land promised to Avraham but not seen by Moshe. The implication is that these three peoples were not to be conquered until Messianic times! Notice that they are hidden like the three upper sefirot and the Bench of Three.

 

Who are the Canaanites? Where were the Canaanites located?

 

Bereshit (Genesis) 10:15-19 Canaan was the father of Sidon his firstborn, and of the Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites and Hamathites. Later the Canaanite clans scattered And the borders of Canaan reached from Sidon toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and then toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha.

 

Shoftim (Shoftim (Judges)) 1:27-30 But Manasseh did not drive out the people of Beth Shan or Taanach or Dor or Ibleam or Megiddo and their surrounding settlements, for the Canaanites were determined to live in that land. When Israel became strong, they pressed the Canaanites into forced labor but never drove them out completely. Nor did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites living in Gezer, but the Canaanites continued to live there among them. Neither did Zebulun drive out the Canaanites living in Kitron or Nahalol, who remained among them; but they did subject them to forced labor.

 

Shemot (Exodus) 3:17

G-d talking to Moshe at the burning bush.

Canaanites,

Hittites,

Amorites,

Perizzites,

Hivites and

Jebusites

 

Shemot (Exodus) 3:8

G-d talking to Moshe at the burning bush.

Canaanites,

Hittites,

Amorites,

Perizzites,

Hivites and

Jebusites

 

Shemot (Exodus) 23:23

Israelites at Mount Sinai.

Amorites,

Hittites,

Perizzites,

Canaanites,

Hivites and

Jebusites

 

Shemot (Exodus) 13:5

The giving of Passover.

Canaanites,

Hittites,

Amorites,

Hivites and

 Jebusites

 

Shemot (Exodus) 34:11

Moshe after seeing the back of G-d.

Amorites,

Canaanites,

Hittites,

Perizzites,

Hivites and

Jebusites

 

Shemot (Exodus) 33:2

Sin of the golden calf.

Canaanites,

Amorites,

Hittites,

Perizzites,

Hivites and

Jebusites.

 

Devarim (Deuteronomy) 20:17

Battle instructions.

Hittites,

Amorites,

Canaanites,

Perizzites,

Hivites and

Jebusites

 

Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7:1

At the giving of the Shema

Hittites,

Girgashites,

Amorites,

Canaanites,

Perizzites,

Hivites and

Jebusites

 

Yehoshua (Joshua) 12:8

The conquered lands.

Hittites,

Amorites,

Canaanites,

Perizzites,

Hivites and

Jebusites):

 

Yehoshua (Joshua) 3:10

Crossing the Jordan river.

Canaanites,

Hittites,

Hivites,

Perizzites,

Girgashites,

Amorites and

Jebusites.

 

Shoftim (Judges) 3:5

The Israelites lived among these:

Canaanites,

Hittites,

Amorites,

Perizzites,

Hivites and

Jebusites.

 

Yehoshua (Joshua) 24:11

Those who fought and lost.

Amorites,

Perizzites,

Canaanites,

Hittites,

Girgashites,

Hivites and

Jebusites,

 

Nehemiah 9:8

Levitical prayer in Nehemiah’s day.

Canaanites,

 Hittites,

Amorites,

Perizzites,

Jebusites and

Girgashites.

 

After the Babylonian captivity, the inhabitants of the land of Israel were still alive and causing trouble for Israel:

 

Ezra 9:1-2 After these things had been done, the leaders came to me and said, "The people of Israel, including the priests and the Levites, have not kept themselves separate from the neighboring peoples with their detestable practices, like those of the

Canaanites,

Hittites,

Perizzites,

Jebusites,

Ammonites,

Moabites,

Egyptians and

Amorites.

They have taken some of their daughters as wives for themselves and their sons, and have mingled the holy race with the peoples around them. And the leaders and officials have led the way in this unfaithfulness."

 

So, when all was said and done, the land promised to Avraham still had it’s original inhabitants. The Girgashites and Hivites are the only ones missing from this list. In Yehoshua (Joshua) chapter 9 we read about the ruse used by the Hivites of Gibeon to enable them to secure a treaty with the Israelites.

 

Midrash Rabbah - Bereshit (Genesis) XLIV:23 THE KENITE, AND THE KENIZZITE, AND THE KADMONITE, AND THE HITTITE, AND THE PERIZZITE, AND THE REPHAIM, AND THE AMORITE, AND THE CANAANITE, AND THE GIRGASHITE, AND THE JEBUSITE (XV, 19 f.). R. Dostai said in the name of R. Samuel b. Nahman: Because the Hivite is not mentioned here[47] the Rephaim are substituted in their stead. R. Helbo said in R. Abba's name in R. Johanan's name: The Holy One, blessed be He, did at first contemplate giving Israel possession of ten peoples, but He gave them only seven, the other three being,’THE KENITE, AND THE KENIZZITE, AND THE KADMONITE. Rabbi said: They are Arabia, the Shalamite, and the Nabatean. R. Simeon b. Yohai said: They are the Damascus region, Asia Minor,[48] and Apamea.[49] R. Liezer b. Jacob said: Asia Minor, Thrace, and Carthage.[50] The Rabbis said: Edom, Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon’ are the three nations that were not given to them in this world, as it is said, For I will not give you of their land, etc. (Deut. II, 5). But in the days of the Messiah they shall once again belong to Israel,[51] in order to fulfill G-d's promise. Now, however, He has given them but seven, as it says, Seven nations greater and mightier than thou (ib. VII, 1). R. Isaac said: The swine grazes with ten of its young whereas the sheep does not graze even with one.[52] Thus, all these, viz. THE KENITE, THE KENIZZITE, etc. [were promised to Avraham's seed], yet so far, Sarai Avraham's wife bore him no children (Gen. XVI, 1)!

 

X. The Ten Generations

 

Another ten is found in the genealogy recorded by Matthew, in chapter one, and Luke in chapter three[53]:

 

1          Adam, the son of G-d.

(G-d talked to Adam and then was silent for ten generations.)

2          Seth, the son of Adam

3          Enosh, the son of Seth

4          Kenan, The son of Enosh

5          Mahalalel, the son of Kenan

6          Jared, the son of Mahalalel

7          Enoch, the son of Jared

8          Methuselah, the son of Enoch

9          Lamech, The son of Methuselah

10        Noah, the son of Lamech

(G-d talked to Noah and then was silent for ten generations.)

11        Shem, the son of Noah

12        Arphaxad, the son of Shem

13        Cainan, the son of Arphaxad

14        Shelah, The son of Cainan

15        Eber, the son of Shelah                      

16        Peleg, the son of Eber

17        Reu, the son of Peleg

18        Serug, the son of Reu

19        Nahor, The son of Serug

20        Terah, the son of Nahor

21        ... Avraham , the son of Terah

(HaShem talked to Avraham )

A record of the genealogy of Yeshua HaMashiach the son of David, the son of Avraham :

 

21        Avraham was the father of Isaac,

22        Isaac the father of Jacob,

23        Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers,

24        Judah the father of Perez and Zerah, whose

mother was Tamar,

25        Perez the father of Hezron,

26        Hezron the father of Ram,

27        Ram the father of Amminadab,

28        Amminadab the father of Nahshon,

29        Nahshon the father of Salmon,

30        Salmon the father of Boaz, whose mother

 was Rahab,

31        Boaz the father of Obed, whose mother

was Ruth,

32        Obed the father of Jesse,

33        And Jesse the father of King David.

34        David was the father of Solomon, whose

 mother had been Uriah's wife,

35        Solomon the father of Rehoboam,

36        Rehoboam the father of Abijah,

37        Abijah the father of Asa,

38        Asa the father of Jehoshaphat,

39        Jehoshaphat the father of Jehoram,

40        Jehoram the father of Uzziah,

41        Uzziah the father of Jotham,

42        Jotham the father of Ahaz,

43        Ahaz the father of Hezekiah,

44        Hezekiah the father of Manasseh,

45        Manasseh the father of Amon,

46        Amon the father of Josiah,

47        And Josiah the father of Jeconiah and his

 brothers at the time of the exile to

Babylon. After the exile to Babylon:

 Jeconiah was the father of Shealtiel,

49        Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel,

50        Zerubbabel the father of Abiud,

51        Abiud the father of Eliakim,

52        Eliakim the father of Azor,

53        Azor the father of Zadok,

54        Zadok the father of Akim,

55        Akim the father of Eliud,

56        Eliud the father of Eleazar,

57        Eleazar the father of Matthan,

58        Matthan the father of Jacob,

59        And Jacob the father of

60        Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born

61        Yeshua, who is called Mashiach.

 

This next section is an excerpt from "The Artscroll Tanach Series: Bereishis", volume 1(a), Mesorah Publications, page 207. Translation and commentary by Rabbi Meir Zlotowitz.

 

“Of the same order were the ten generations from Adam to Noah and the ten from Noah to Avraham. The number ten was not coincidental; HaShem had a plan of development which was to proceed and develop until it reached its spiritual culmination in ten generations. The master plan of creation was Torah and it was to enable man to perfect himself through the study of Torah and the performance of its commands that heaven and earth were created. The divine intention was that HaShem's Presence be revealed behind the obscurity of earth's hiddenness through Adam, and that man's perception of it grow and intensify stage by stage, emanation by emanation, until the tenth generation when it was to reach its climax. Then, the Torah would be given and all mankind would achieve HaShem's final purpose and become, a kingdom of priests and a holy nation[54].”

 

“The Zohar writes that this goal is alluded to in the word since he is but flesh,[55] which has the numerical value of Moshe. Had man been worthy, the equivalent of Moshe would have appeared to receive the Torah. But mankind was not worthy; instead of attaining perfection, man moved in a downward spiral of idolatry, degeneration, and corruption until the flood blotted him out.”

 

“The process was to begin again from righteous Noah who signaled a new and better beginning by bringing offerings of thanksgiving and dedication to HaShem after the deluge. Once again HaShem set in motion the chain of development that was to culminate in man's perfection and the giving of the Torah. Again, man did not rise to the challenge. The ten generations sinned increasingly, angering HaShem more and more, even attempting to challenge His mastery of the earth and do battle with Him by erecting their Tower of Babel[56]. But this chain of ten had a different ending than the earlier one. Had it ended in total failure, then no one can know what sort of misfortune might have been visited upon man. Instead it ended with Avraham. By his own greatness, a greatness he proved by elevating himself through a succession of ten tests, he achieved in his person what all ten generations had failed to do." The Zohar states that Avraham was a gilgul of Adam HaRishon. Avraham, therefore, is to complete the mission of Adam HaRishon. With Mashiach proclaimed as the last Adam[57], the connection of ten with Mashiach is strengthened.”

 

1.  Nimrod threw Avraham into a furnace

 

The first series of generations was wiped out without a memory; the second series attained in Avraham what it was destined to accomplish. By not being equal to its mission, the rest of mankind lost its birthright of holiness: before then, all of mankind was meant to share the gift of Torah and be the chariot bearing HaShem's Presence. All of mankind bore within itself the sparks of holiness that should have grown into a fire of spirituality. But they weren't nurtured and would have become extinguished had not Avraham risen to such heights that he could become the abode of all the world's holiness. The unwelcome holy sparks left their unwilling hosts and lodged in Avraham . They all antagonized HaShem, until Avraham came and earned the merit of them all.

 

Avraham performed the commandments of the Torah before they were given,' even the Rabbinic injunctions of the future (Yoma 28b).’His two kidneys became like two teachers teaching him Torah and wisdom' (Midrash), because he reached so high a level that his own words and thoughts became Torah; he united himself with the mind of HaShem until his own thoughts and wisdom became identical with HaShem's. Thus, in more than a symbolic sense, the Divine Plan was fulfilled and Torah was’given' - not to the flawed generation of Babel - it was dispersed; not by giving the Tablets and the Torah in its present form - that was left for Moshe and the children of Israel. But the Torah was given and nurtured in Avraham who, in a real sense, began a new history of the world."[58]

 

So, if ten (10) represents Mashiach and six (6) represents man as the connection between this world and the upper world, then ten times six would represent Mashiach ben Yosef or the Man Mashiach! The seventh Mashiach should be Mashiach ben David. Notice that each of the men, every ten generations, in bold is a “type” of the Mashiach.

 

Another interesting point is that Yeshua is a combination of the finite (the son of man), and the infinite (The Son of G-d).

 

In The Book Of Ruth[59]

 

In all of the things we have told you, you should understand certain matters that we have not stated openly. You should join everything together, and use your own wisdom to understand the proper way to conduct the marital union, behaving even more modestly than all of the modest qualities that characterize your other doings, such as eating, drinking, and speaking with people. This is because your modesty and your thoughts during the marital act are what determine the quality and spiritual make-up of your drops of semen.

 

This is the secret of the verse, "These are the generations Yitzhak, son of Avraham...." (Genesis, 25:19). After the Holy One, Blessed Be He, told him that his wife Sarah would give birth to a son, at the time of their union, Avraham concentrated his mind, and all of his noble qualities, on a supremely transcendental intention. Attaching his thoughts to the most exalted spiritual worlds, he infused his mind with the intention of having a son who would be worthy of G-d's promise. This is the secret of, "Avraham gave birth to Yitzhak," meaning he concentrated on having a son who would be a complete tzaddik like himself....

 

This is how all other saintly men conduct themselves, for in performing the marital act for the sake of the mitzvah, attaching their thoughts at the time of the union to the most exalted spiritual worlds, they bring forth children possessing the kernels of holiness, purity, and saintly behavior.

And this is why it is written, "These are the generations of Peretz: Peretz gave birth to Chetzron, and Chetzron begot Ram, and Ram begot Amminadav, and Amminadov begot Nachshon, and Nachshon begot Salma, and Salma begot Boaz, and Boaz begot Oved, and Oved begot Yishay, and Yishay begot David  (Ruth, 4:18). For, in being a complete tzaddik, Peretz had the intention of giving birth to a tzaddik like himself. This is the secret of "Peretz gave birth to Chatzron," continuing on until"Yishay begot David," a tzaddik giving birth to a tzaddik.

 

Midrash Rabbah - Genesis XXXIX:10 Similarly, the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Abraham: ‘What need had I to trace the descent of Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, and Terah? Was it not on thy account? ‘1 Thus it is written, And foundest his heart  [Abraham's] faithful before Thee  (Neh. IX, 8).2 In like manner God said to David: ' What need had I to trace the descent of Perez, Hezron, Ram, Aminadab, Nachshon, Shalmon, Boaz, Obed, and Jesse? Was it not on thy account? ' Hence it is written, I have found David My servant; with My holy oil have I anointed him (Ps. LXXXIX, 21).

 

This comes to tell us that it was not accidental that G-d chose his servant, David, to rule as king over Israel, for he was the pinnacle of a chain of ten generations of complete tzaddikim, one more exalted than the next. This resembles the ten sefirotin the secret of their elevation, one upon the other, joined in the secret of ten, the Hebrew letter yud, which encompasses all the numbers preceding it, for from Peretz to David, there are ten ascending stages of tzaddik ben tzaddik.

 

And now, meditate on the secret of these matters. If you practice them like I have set forth, I promise you that you will give birth to a righteous tzaddik who will sanctify the Name of HaShem.

 

XI. The Ten Stages

 

Rosh HaShana 31a R. Judah b. Idi said in the name of R. Johanan: The Divine Presence [so to speak] left Israel by ten stages[60] — this we know from references in Scripture — and the Sanhedrin correspondingly wandered to ten places of banishment[61] — this we know from tradition.’The Divine Presence left Israel by ten stages — this we know from references in Scripture’:

[it went] from the Ark-cover to the Cherub[62] and

from the Cherub to the threshold [of the Holy of Holies], and

from the threshold to the court, and

from the court to the altar,[63] and

from the altar to the roof [of the Temple], and

from the roof to the wall, and

from the wall to the town, and

from the town to the mountain, and

from the mountain to the wilderness, and

from the wilderness it ascended and abode in its own place,[64] as it says, I will go and return to my place.[65]‘From the Ark-cover to the Cherub[66] and from the Cherub to the threshold’, as it is written, And there will I meet with thee . . . from above the ark-cover,[67] and it is written, And the glory of the Lord was gone up from the cherub whereupon it was to the threshold of the house.[68]‘And from the threshold to the court’, as it is written, And the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the Lord's glory,[69]‘From the court to the altar’, as it is written, I saw the Lord standing on the altar.[70]‘And from the altar to the roof’, as it is written, It is better to dwell it, a corner of the housetop [than in a house in common with a contentious woman].[71]‘From the roof to the wall’, as it is written, Behold, the Lord stood by a wall made by a plumb line.[72]‘From the wall to the town’, as it is written, The voice of the Lord crieth unto the city.[73]‘And from the city to the mountain’, as it is written, And the glory of the Lord went up from the midst of the city and stood upon the mountain which is on the east side of the city.[74]‘And from the mountain to the wilderness as it is written, It is better to dwell in a desert land [than with a contentious woman].[75]‘And from the wilderness it went and abode in its own place’, as it is written, I shall go and return to my place until they acknowledge their guilt.[76]

 

XII. The Ten Angelic Levels

 

Maimonides[77] enumerates the ten species of angels:

 

1. The holy Hayot, who are above all others;

2. the Ofanim, the wheel angels;

3. the er'elim, the great, exalted ones;

4. the chashmalim, ''the fiery beings which communicate'' (Ez. 1:27);

5. the seraphim, the burning ones, the reptilians;

6. the malachim, the messengers;

7. the Elohim, the Shoftim (Judges) of the lower realms;

8. the benei elohim, the workers for the elohim angels;

9. the keruvim, the childlike angels;

10. the ishim, the humanlike angels who appear to mankind as human beings.

 

Maimonides and the other Hakhamim and Kabbalists are quite clear that there is a direct connection between angels and the planets. Maimonides writes in his Laws of the Foundations of Torah (3:9) that’'All stars and planets possess a soul, knowledge, and intellect. They are alive ... The knowledge of the planets is [however] less than the knowledge of the angels.'' The famous Bible commentator, Nachmanides, reveals even more than this. He states in his commentary to Devarim 18:9-12, that there are certain stars that are guided by archangels, and that these archangels are the souls of those planets. They are called the Princes of the Teli (Dragon).

 

This Sage is saying something here that is quite profound: the planets are the bodies of the angels. Therefore, the relationship of an angel to a planet is like that of a human body to the soul within it. Both are one. We thus see that there is some aspect of physical manifestations for the angels. This relationship of the archangel to the planets is accepted by numerous other Rabbinic Sages and Kabbalists. Many of these are mentioned in the piyut read at shacharit on Shemini Atzeret.

 

XIII. The Ten Tribes

 

The ten tribes which became lost during the Assyrian exile will be identified by Mashiach.

 

XIV. Ten in the Mishkan

 

On the day that the Mishkan was inaugurated, the eighth day, ten crowns were given to it according to Seder Olam 7:

 

1. It was a Sunday, which was the day on which creation occurred. It was the day of creation! This makes sense given that the Mishkan was a replication of creation, a microcosm of HaShem's masterpiece. The entire Mishkan was built to parallel the physical world.

 

2. The princes began to bring their gifts on this day. Hence, some have a tradition to read this part of the Torah (Bamidbar 7:1) each day, one prince per day, from Rosh Chodesh Nisan onward. Additional, this same section is read during Chanukah when the altar was re-dedicated.

 

3. This began the priestly service, which, until then had been performed by the firstborn of the nation. Originally, the priesthood was the right of all firstborn, a right that was forfeited at Mt. Sinai when they did not step forward to help Moshe purge the camp of those who participated in the episode of the golden calf. Therefore, the priesthood was officially turned over to the seed of Aharon.

 

4. Communal services began that day (continual-offering, mussaf-offering, etc.).

 

5. The Heavenly fire to ignite the altar came down that day:

 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 9:24 Then, a fire came out from before HaShem and consumed the burnt-offering and the fat on the altar, while the people watched ...

 

6. The sacrifices could no longer be eaten anywhere, but only in their prescribed locations.

7. Private altars became forbidden, since now sacrifices could be brought to the opening of the Tent of Appointment. Until this point, it was permissible to build an altar and sacrifice to HaShem just about anywhere one wanted. However, once the Mishkan was operative, that was no longer so.

 

8. It was the first time since Torah was given that Rosh Chodesh Nisan, the New Year of the months, came around. In Egypt, Moshe received the mitzva to start counting the months and the years[78], and this Rosh Chodesh Nisan was the completion of the first cycle.

 

9. The Shechinah began to dwell among the Jewish people, as it says:

 

Shemot (Exodus) 25:8 Let them make Me a sanctuary, so I can dwell among them ...

 

10. Birchat Kohanim, the Priestly Blessing, began. Outside of Israel, this is only recited on holidays; inside Israel, it is recited during shacharit  daily[79].

 

Shabbath 87b R. Assi[80] of Hozna'ah[81] said to R. Ashi, Come and hear: And it came to pass in the first month of the second year, on the first day of the month, that the tabernacle was reared up;[82] [and with reference to this] a Tanna taught: That day took ten crowns.[83] It was the first of the Creation,[84] the first for the princes,[85] the first for the priesthood,[86] the first for [public] sacrifice, the first for the fall of fire [from Heaven],[87] the first for the eating of sacred food,[88] the first for the dwelling of the Shechinah in Israel, the first for the [priestly] blessing of Israel,[89] the first for the interdict of the high places,[90] [and] the first of months. Now, since the first of Nisan of that year was on a Sunday, that of the previous year must have been on a Wednesday. For it was taught: Others say, Between one’Azereth[91] and another, and between one New Year[‘s day] and another, there can be a difference of only four days,[92] and in a leap year, five [days].[93] Hence the first of Iyar must have fallen on the eve of the Sabbath [Friday], and the first of Sivan on the Sabbath, which is a difficulty according to both R. Jose and the Rabbis?

 

Midrash Rabbah - Genesis III:9 R. Samuel b. Ammi said: From the beginning of the world's creation the Holy One, blessed be He, longed to enter into partnership with the mortals. For what will you: if it is a matter of time reckoning, it should say either one, two, three, or first, second, third, but surely not, one, second, third! When did the Holy One, blessed be He, repay them? At the erection of the Tabernacle, as it says, And he that presented his offering the first day (Num. VII, 12), meaning, the first of the world's creation, for G-d said,’It is as though on that day I created My world.’ That day took ten crowns: it was the first of the creation, first in respect of kings, the princes, the priesthood, and the Shechinah, (as it says, And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them (Ex.XXV, 8)); it was first in respect of blessing, sacrificial service, the prohibition of high places, killing at the north [side of the Altar], and the descending of fire, as it is said, And there came forth fire from before the Lord (Lev. IX, 24).

 

The curtain around the Mishkan, the Tabernacle in the wilderness, was composed of ten curtains made by joining two sets of five curtains:

 

Shemot (Exodus) 26:1-4 "Make the tabernacle with ten curtains of finely twisted linen and blue, purple and scarlet yarn, with cherubim worked into them by a skilled craftsman. All the curtains are to be the same size--twenty-eight cubits long and four cubits wide. Join five of the curtains together, and do the same with the other five.

 

In the Mishkan (sanctuary), the infinite G-d dwells in a finite sanctuary among finite men. Within the Mishkan, we see this same pattern repeated over and over again. Another of the things that makes this ten interesting is that Parsha Terumah (offering), is introduced with an interesting verse:

 

Shemot (Exodus) 25:8 "Then have them make a sanctuary for me, and I will dwell among them.

 

While this idiomatic phrase certainly means what is translated, the literal meaning is:

 

Shemot (Exodus) 25:8 "Then have them make a sanctuary for me, and I will dwell in them.

 

HaShem’s dwelling in His people is confirmed in:

 

1 Corinthians 6:19 Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from G-d? You are not your own;

 

Here we have another example of the infinite Holy Spirit dwelling in finite man.

 

Eretz Israel is the tenth level of kedusha. The kodesh kodashim was a cube of ten by ten amot (cubits). The ark (aron) contained the ten commandments, and was ten tefachim high.

 

XV. Tishre Ten

 

During the days of the Mishkan (sanctuary) in the wilderness and the days of the Temple, the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) would go, once a year, into the Holy of Holies. He would do this only on Yom HaKippurim, the tenth day of the year. On this day he would pronounce the YHWH (HaShem) name of G-d ten times. This name begins with the yod - י, the tenth letter of the Hebrew alephbet, which has the value of ten! What makes this interesting is that Yeshua HaMashiach is also our Kohen Gadol:

 

Bereans (Hebrews) 4:14 Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has gone through the heavens, Yeshua the Son of G-d, let us hold firmly to the faith we profess.

 

Yeshua's name also begins with a yod. The yod is used several times in the Torah as a reference to life in the world to come.

 

Yoma 39b Our Rabbis taught:[94] Ten times did the high priest pronounce the [Ineffable] Name on that day: Three times at the first confession, thrice at the second confession, thrice in connection with the he-goat to be sent away, and once in connection with the lots. And it already happened that when he pronounced the Name, his voice was heard even unto Jericho.[95]

 

* * *

 

Yoma 32a Our Rabbis taught: And Aaron shall come into the tent of meeting[96] For what purpose does he enter? For no other purpose than that of taking out the censer and the coal-pan, the whole portion being reported in right order with the exception of this passage.[97] For what reason?[98] — R. Hisda said: There is a tradition: Five immersions and ten sanctifications did the high priest undergo on that day. If he had performed them in the order mentioned in the scriptures there could have been no more than three immersions and six sanctifications.[99]

 

It was taught: R. Judah said: Whence do we know of the five immersions and ten sanctifications which the high priest had to undergo on that day? To teach us that it is said: And Aaron shall come into the tent of meeting, and shall put off the linen garments . . . and he shall wash his flesh in water in a holy place and put on his other vestments and come forth and offer [his burnt-offering].[100] Thus you infer that whenever one changes from one service to another,[101] an immersion is required. Rabbi said: Whence do we know that the high priest had to undergo five immersions and ten sanctifications on that day? Because it is said: He shall put on the holy linen tunic, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with the linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired; they are the holy garments; and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and put them on.[102] Hence you learn that whosoever changes from service to service requires an immersion. Moreover, it says,’They are the holy garments’, thus putting all the garments on the same level. Now there are five services;[103] The continual offering of dawn, [performed] in the golden garments: the service of the day [the Day of Atonement], in linen garments; of his [the high priest's] and the people's ram, in the golden garments; [the taking out] of the censer and coal-pan, in white garments; the continual evening offering in the golden garments — Whence do we know that every immersion required two sanctifications? For it is written: And he shall put off . . . and he shall wash; and he shall wash and he shall put on.[104] — R. Eliezer b. Simeon said: This can be inferred a minori ad majus: If in a case where no immersion is required,[105] sanctification is yet required,[106] how much more, in a place in which immersion is required,[107] is sanctification also required — But [perhaps let us also infer] that as there only one sanctification is required, here, too, one only would be necessary? Therefore Scripture says: And Aaron shall come into the tent of meeting, and shall put off the linen garments which he put on — what is the meaning of’which he put on’? Does not a man put off but that which he did put on? Rather [are these superfluous words written] to put the putting off on the same level with the putting on of the garments; just as the putting on of the garments requires sanctification,[108] so does the putting off of the garments require it.

 

 [The master said]:[109]‘R. Judah said: Whence do we know of the five immersions and ten sanctifications which the high priest had to undergo on that Day? To teach us that Scripture says: "And Aaron shall come into the tent of meeting . . . and shall wash his flesh in water in a holy place." Thus you infer that whenever one changes from one service to another, an immersion is required.’ We found [this rule] for the change from the white garments to the golden ones.[110] Whence do we know [that it also applies] for the change from the golden to the linen ones?

 

* * *

 

Yoma 21a Rab Judah said in the name of Rab: When the Israelites come up to the festivals, they stand pressed together,[111] but they prostrate themselves, with wide spaces [between them], and they extend eleven cubits behind the back wall of the Holy of Holies.[112] What does that mean? — It means that although they extended eleven cubits behind the back wall of the Holy of Holies, standing pressed together, yet when they prostrated themselves, they prostrated themselves with wide spaces [between them]. This is one of the ten miracles which were wrought in the Temple, for we have learnt: Ten miracles were wrought in the Temple:[113] no woman miscarried from the scent of the holy flesh; the holy flesh never became putrid; no fly was seen in the slaughter house; no pollution ever befell the high priest on the Day of Atonement; no rain ever quenched the fire of the wood-pile on the altar; neither did the wind overcome the column of smoke that arose there from; nor was there ever found any disqualifying defect in the’Omer[114] or in the two loaves,[115] or in the showbread; though the people stood closely pressed together, they still found wide spaces between them to prostrate themselves; never did serpent or scorpion injure anyone in Jerusalem, nor did any man ever say to his fellow: The place is too narrow for me to stay overnight in Jerusalem.[116] — He started with [miracles in] the Temple and concludes with [those wrought] in Jerusalem! — There are two more [miracles wrought] in the Temple. For it has been taught: Never did rains quench the fire of the pile of wood on the altar; and as for the smoke arising from the pile of wood, even if all the winds of the world came blowing, they could not divert it from its wonted place. But are there no more? Has not R. Shemaya of Kalnebo[117] taught that the fragments of earthenware[118] were swallowed up in the very place [where they were broken];[119] and Abaye said: The crop, the feathers, the ashes removed from the inner altar and from the candlestick were swallowed up in the very place [where they were taken off]? — The three[120] [referring to] disqualifications were included under one head, hence take off two and add two! But then all [cases of] things swallowed up ought also to be included under one[121] head, so that the count would be one short? — There are also other [miracles], for R. Joshua b. Levi said:[122] A great miracle was wrought with the showbread, viz., when it was removed it was as fresh as when it was put on, as it was said: To put hot bread in the day it was taken away.[123] But are there no more? Has not R. Levi said: This matter has been handed down as a tradition to us from our forefathers: The place on which the ark stands is not included in the measurement;[124] and has not Rabbanai in the name of Samuel said: The Cherubs were standing by sheer miracle? — The count refers to miracles wrought outside [the Temple], miracles wrought inside are not mentioned. If that be so, what of the showbread which is also a miracle that happened inside the Temple? — No, that miracle happened outside, for Resh Lakish said: What is the meaning of the passage: Upon the pure table before the Lord;[125] the statement that it is pure implies that it was susceptible to uncleanness.

 

CONSTANT MIRACLES

 

Understandably, life in the Temple environs was filled with constant miracles. In fact, to a large degree, natural law was suspended. On a certain level, miracles did not even amaze people, because just through the experience of the Temple itself people sensed the realization that HaShem was beyond these laws.

 

The Talmud (Pirke Avot 5:8) reports ten miracles that were performed continually in the First Temple:

 

1. No woman ever miscarried from the aroma of the animal offerings.

 

2. The animal offerings never spoiled.

 

3. A fly was never seen in the slaughterhouse of the Temple.

 

4. No unclean accident ever happened to the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kippur.

 

5. Rain did not extinguish the fire on the altar's wood-pile.

 

6. Despite the wind, the column of smoke from the altar always rose straight up.

 

7. No defect was ever found in the Omer or the Showbreads.

 

8. Though worshippers at the Temple stood closely pressed together, each one still had enough room to bow down.

 

9. No serpent or scorpion ever harmed anyone in Jerusalem.

 

11. Nobody ever said to his friend: There is no room for me to lodge overnight in Jerusalem.

 

HaShem provided these miracles so that the Jewish People should have the ability to perform the Temple service without any impediments. The Almighty assured us that nothing in the world, including nature itself, would ever hold back the Jewish People's ability to reach Him.

 

XVI. Many Tens

 

Most of this section is from: “The Book of Tens”, by Mark Podwal, Greenwillow Books:

 

10 fingers on two hands.

 

HaShem governs with 10 fundamental principles, the Sefirot.

Keter               – crown

            Chachmah       - Wisdom

Binah              - Understanding

Chesed            - Mercy

Din / Gevurah - Judgment / Power

Teferet            - Beauty

Netzach           - Eternity

Hod                 - Majesty

Yesod              - Foundation

Malchut           - Kingdom

 

10 plagues one for each of Avraham’s 10 trials.

 

The 10 wonders created on the first day were the heavens and the earth, chaos and emptiness, light and darkness, wind and water, the length of the day, and the length of the night.

 

Chagigah 12a Rab Judah further said that Rab said: Ten[126] things were created the first day, and they are as follows: heaven and earth, Tohu [chaos], Bohu [desolation],[127] light and darkness, wind and water, the measure of day and the measure of night.[128] Heaven and earth, for it is written: In the beginning G-d created heaven and earth.[129] Tohu and Bohu, for it is written: And the earth was Tohu and Bohu.[130] Light and darkness: darkness, for it is written: And darkness was upon the face of the deep;[131] light, for it is written: And G-d said, Let there be light.[132] Wind and water, for it is written: And the wind[133] of G-d hovered over the face of the waters.[134] The measure of day and the measure of night, for it is written: And there was evening and there was morning, one day.[135] It is taught: Tohu is a green line that encompasses the whole world, out of which darkness proceeds, for it is said: He made darkness His hiding-place round about Him.[136] Bohu, this means the slimy[137] stones that are sunk in the deep, out of which the waters proceed, for it is said: And he shall stretch over it the line of confusion [Tohu] and the plummet of emptiness [Bohu].[138]

 

10 marvels were created at twilight just before the first Sabbath eve:

 

1.     the ram substituted for Isaac

2.     The rainbow

3.     Aaron’s rod that called forth the 10 plagues

4.     The tablets of the 10 commandments

5.     The stylus HaShem used to engrave the 10 commandments

6.     The manna

7.     Miriam’s well

8.     Balaam’s donkey’s power of speech

9.     The burial place of Moshe

10.  The shamir, the worm like creature that cut the stones used for Solomon’s Temple

 

Pesachim 54a Yet was light created at the termination of the Sabbath? Surely It was taught: Ten things were created on the eve of the Sabbath at twilight. These are they: the well,[139] the manna, the rainbow,[140] the writing[141] and the writing instrument[s], the Tables,[142] the sepulcher of Moshe, the cave in which Moshe and Elijah stood,[143] the opening of the ass's mouth,[144] and the opening of the earth's mouth to swallow up the wicked.[145] R. Nehemiah said in his father's name: Also fire and the mule.[146] R. Josiah said in his father's name: Also the ram[147] and the shamir.[148] R. Judah said: Tongs too.

 

Ethics of the Fathers 5:6 Ten things were created on the eve of Shabbat at twilight. These are: the mouth of the earth (where it swallowed Korach) the mouth of the well (of Miriam, that provided water for the Israelites in the desert); the mouth of the (ballam's) ass; the rainbow; the manna; (Moses') staff; the shamir (that cut the stones of the Altar in the Holy Temple); and the writing, the inscription, and the tablets [of the Ten Commandments].

 

Upon hearing that Adam and Eve had eaten of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, G-d cursed the serpent and Eve with 10 curses:

1.     Adam was striped of his heavenly garments

2.     His food would be the grasses of the field

3.     He was to earn his daily food in sorrow

4.     His children were condemned to wander from land to land.

5.     His body would sweat

6.     Animals would have the power to kill him

7.     He would no longer live forever

8.     His days would be full of trouble

9.     He would become dust

10.  He would have to answer for all his deeds on earth

 

Nimrod was one of the 10 kings who ruled the earth from one end to the other. When HaShem came down to Babel, it was one of the 10 times HaShem set foot in our world.

 

10 brothers of Joseph sold him into slavery.

Bereshit (Genesis) 22:1-2

 

10 righteous men could have saved Sodom from destruction.

 

10 blessings were given by Isaac to Jacob:

1.     G-d give you the dew of heaven

2.     The fat of the land

3.     Plenty of grain

4.     and wine

5.     Nations shall serve you

6.     And bow down to you

7.     You shall be master over your brothers

8.     And your mother’s sons shall bow down to you

9.     A curse to all who curse you

10.  A blessing to all who bless you

 

10 incidents tried HaShem’s patience in the wilderness.

 

10 spies gave a false report about the land.

 

10 strings were made for David’s harp.

 

10 menorah’s lit Solomon’s Temple.

 

10 were permitted to enter the Olam HaBa (the world to come) in their lifetime. Midrash Yalkut Shimoni Yehezkel 364 - "Nine entered Gan Eden alive:

 

1. Hanoch,

2. Eliyahu,

3. Mashiach,

4. Eliezer,

5. the servant of the Kushi King,

6. Hiram King of Zor,

7. Yavetz the grandson of R' Yehuda HaNasi,

8. Serach bat Asher,

9. Batya bat Pharoah.

 

Some take out Hiram and put in R' Yehoshua ben Levi."

 

10 gradations of Holiness in Eretz Yisrael (Mishna, Kelim 1:1).

 

10 tribes were exiled to Assyria.

 

10 lions were in the den with Daniel.

 

10 sons of Haman were hanged.

 

10 days of repentance.

 

10 mentions of HaShem's kingdom, 10 Shofars and 10 remembrances in the Amidah prayer of Rosh Hashanah.

 

There are ten times in which the command to give tsedaqh (charity) appears in the Torah.

 

* * *

 

Moshe in fact, was the first person among ten in the Tanakh called "man of G-d." The others were: Elkanah,

Samuel,

David,

Shmemaya,

Ido,

Elijah,

Elisha,

Micah and

Anon.[149]

* * *

 

It is revealing to note that the number 10 (the numeric equivalent of the letter’Yod') is often used to group together items that are related to the wisdom of the Torah, or to the fear of heaven. Just a few examples of this are: 10 utterances with which the world was created (Avot 5:1); 10 Plagues in Egypt (the subject of this week's Parasha); 10 Commandments in the Tablets of the Law; 10 tests of Avraham's fear of G-d, all of which he passed (Avot 5:3); 10 that make up a congregation in prayer; 10 miracles that occurred regularly in the Holy Temple (Avot 5:5).

 

The Ten Levels of Sanctity

 

"And I will bring him (Kalev) to the land to which he came" (14:25).

 

The word "and I will bring him" ('va'havi'osiv') contains an extra’Yod', a hint to the ten levels of sanctity that Eretz Yisrael comprises (as befits a man of the caliber of Kelev, who strove for those very levels).[150]

 

Here are the ten levels as listed in the first chapter of Kelim:

 

1. Eretz Yisrael

2. Walled towns

3. Within the walls of Yerushalayim

4. Har HaBayit (Temple Mount)

5. The Chil (a walled area within the Har HaBayit)

6. The Ezrat Nashim

7. The Ezrat Kohanim

8. Between the Ulam (the Hall leading to the Heichal) and the Mizbeach (altar)

9. The Heichal (the Holy place)

10. The Kodesh Kodeshim (the Holy of Holies).

 

* * *

 

Rashi’s Commentary for: Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 1:16[151] Wash, cleanse yourselves Voweled with a ‘patach,’ the imperative form, since it is derived from רְחַץ , but רָחֲצוּ , [in the past tense, is voweled with a ‘kamatz’ because it is derived fromרָחַץ ].

 

Wash, cleanse yourselves, remove, learn, seek, strengthen, perform justice, plead, go 

 

Ten exhortations of the expression of repentance are [listed] here, corresponding to the Ten Days of Penitence and to the ten verses of Kingship, Remembrances, and Shofaroth [in the musaf service of Rosh Hashanah].

 

 

 


XVII. Avraham was tested 10 times

 

God tested Abraham ten times:[152]  

 

1. Abraham suffered greatly in the town of Casdim when Nimrod threw him into the Fiery Furnace (Noah, Chapter 18).

 

2. God commanded Abraham to separate himself from his father and the rest of his family, and to abandon all his family and friends to go to a strange land. His anguish was greater because God did not tell him where he was to go, nor did He reveal to him the length of his journey.

 

3. There was a great famine in Canaan. All the world had plenty except the area where Abraham was. Since he did not want. to violate God's command' by returning to his father, he was forced to go to Egypt.

 

4. When Abraham entered Egypt, Sarah was taken from him and held in the royal palace.

 

5. A number of kings attacked with the intent to kill Abraham. Their plan was to take his nephew, Lot, captive, and when he came to save Lot, they would kill Abraham. When they took Lot captive along with all the people of Sodom and Gemorrah, Abraham had to do battle with them. This caused him great suffering, because he had to fight against such great odds.

 

6. God appeared to Abraham between the halves (beyn ha-betarim, and told him of the exile (galut) his children would have to endure if they were wicked, as well as the torments of purgatory that they would suffer.

 

7. When Abraham was 99 years old he was commanded to undergo circumcision. He was very apprehensive about this, since he hoped to have a son in his old age, and everything possible would have to be done to enhance his virility. Now he was told to reduce his virility by undergoing circumcision.

 

8. When Abraham went to the land of the Philistines, King Abimelekh ordered that Sarah be taken to his palace.

 

9. When Isaac grew up, Sarah noticed Ishmael hiding behind a wall, aiming an arrow at Isaac to kill him. She said to Abraham, "I want you to write a note (shetar maianah) right now, giving to Isaac all that God promised to give you. I do not want the son of the slave to inherit (yoresh) together with Isaac." God also commanded Abraham to discharge Hagar and her son from his house. Of all Abraham's troubles, none was worse than having to send his firstborn (bekhor) son away from his house.

 

10. The 'tenth was the "binding" (akedah) of Yitschaq. After Abraham had been gratified by having a long-awaited son, he was commanded to slaughter him as a sacrifice to God.

 

Paralleling these ten tests, God gave us ten special days during the year. These are the Ten Days of Repentance (Assarah Yemey Teshuvah), [the ten days from Rosh HaShanah to Yom Kippur, inclusively]. During these days, a person's prayers (tefillah, and repentance (teshuvah) are particularly acceptable to God. These ten days parallel the ten trials through which God put Abraham to the test. Therefore, during these ten days, Abraham's merit (zekhuth) is particularly helpful to us.

 

Paralleling Abraham's ten tests, God also brought about ten miracles (nissim) for the Israelites in Egypt, and an additional ten at the [Red] Sea. For the same reason, He brought the Ten Plagues (makkoth) upon the Egyptians.

 

It was also. because of Abraham's ten tests that Cod gave us the Ten Commandments (Assereth HaDibroth). When the Israelites made the Golden Calf, and the Tablets (Luchoth) con­taining the Ten Commandments were broken, God again remembered Abraham's ten trials. As a result of his merit, God took pity on the Israelite nation (Umah Yisraelit).

 


 

 

Plague in Mitzrayim

Creation Sayings

Avraham’s Trials[153]

1. Water is turned into blood. Shemot (Exodus) 7:20

 

10.Then G-d said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." Bereshit (Genesis) 1:26

10. He had to sacrifice his son Isaac. Bereshit (Genesis) 22

2. Frogs everywhere. Shemot (Exodus) 8:5 (frogs increase in number and fill...?)

9. G-d blessed them and said, "Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth." Bereshit (Genesis) 1:22

9. He had to send away his son Ishmael. Bereshit (Genesis) 21:10-12

3. Dust becomes gnats. Shemot (Exodus) 8:17 (sky teems with creatures?)

8. And G-d said, "Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky." Bereshit (Genesis) 1:20

8. Avimelech takes Avraham’s wife. Bereshit (Genesis) 20:2

4. Beasts everywhere. Shemot (Exodus) 8:24

 

7. And let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth." And it was so. Bereshit (Genesis) 1:15

7. At 99 he was circumcised.

Bereshit (Genesis) 17:11

5. Livestock all dies. Shemot (Exodus) 9:6 (plants give livestock life.)

6. Then G-d said, "Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds." And it was so. Bereshit (Genesis) 1:11

6. At the “Covenant between the Parts”, Avraham had to choose between purgatory and exile for his descendants.

Bereshit (Genesis) 15

6. Festering boils. Shemot (Exodus) 9:10 (boil means "to burn")

 

5. And G-d said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear." And it was so.

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:9

5. He went to war against the four kings. Bereshit (Genesis) 14:13-16

7. Hail mixed with fire. Shemot (Exodus) 9:23 (Hail from the sky?)

 

4. G-d called the expanse "sky." And there was evening, and there was morning--the second day. Bereshit (Genesis) 1:8

4. Sarah, Avraham’s wife, was kidnapped and brought to Pharaoh’s palace. Bereshit (Genesis) 12:15

8. Locusts everywhere. Shemot (Exodus) 10:13 (Locusts in the expanse?)

3. G-d said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water." Bereshit (Genesis) 1:6

3. He suffered hunger during the famine in Canaan. Bereshit (Genesis) 12:10

9. Darkness. Shemot (Exodus) 10:22

2. G-d said, "Let there be light."

Bereshit (Genesis) 1:3

2. G-d made him leave his father’s house. Bereshit (Genesis) 12:1

10. Death of the firstborn. Shemot (Exodus) 12:29          

1. In the beginning G-d created the heavens and the earth. Bereshit (Genesis) 1:1

1. Nimrod casts Avraham into a fiery furnace. Pesachim 118a

 

Because of the merit of Abraham in undergoing these ten trials, God pardoned the Israelites for their sin of testing Him ten times. The ten tests were:

 

1. Before crossing the Red Sea, they complained, "Were there not enough graves in Egypt?" (Exodus 14:11).

 

2. After they crossed the Red Sea, they complained about their lack of water. It is thus written: “They came to Marah ... and the people complained ... " (Exodus 15:23,24).             .           .

 

3. In Rephidim, the people complained about the lack of water. It is thus written, "The people argued with Moses ... " (Exodus 17:2).

 

4. When God gave the manna, He commanded, "No man shall leave his place on the seventh day" (Exodus 16 :29). Still, people disobeyed and went out (Exodus 16 :27).

 

5. When God gave the manna, He also commanded, "Let no man leave any over for the morning" (Exodus 16:19). Still, people disobeyed, as it is written, "And men left some over" (Exodus 16:20).

 

6. Before God sent the quails, the people complained, "If only we had died in Egypt, when we sat by the flesh-pots" (Exodus 16:3).

 

7. Also with regard to eating flesh, the Torah states, "The camp followers among them began to experience desire" (Numbers 11:4).

 

8. The sin of the Golden Calf (Exodus 32).

 

9. The complaints against God (Numbers 11:1).

 

10. The sin of the Spies (meraglim) (Numbers 13).

 


XVII. The Ten Plagues

 

10 plagues punished Pharaoh and the Egyptians:

1.     Water into blood

2.     Frogs

3.     Lice

4.     Wild beasts

5.     Pestilence

6.     Boils

7.     Hail mixed with fire

8.     Locusts

9.     Darkness

10.  Death of the first born

 

These ten plagues were divided into two groups of five. The first five, Pharaoh hardened his own heart and in the second five, G-d hardened Pharaoh's heart.

 

1. Blood

Shemot (Exodus) 7:20-22 And Moshe and Aaron did so, as HaShem commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that [were] in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that [were] in the river were turned to blood. And the fish that [was] in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt. And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as HaShem had said.

 

2. Frogs

Shemot (Exodus) 8:12-15 And Moshe and Aaron went out from Pharaoh: and Moshe cried unto HaShem because of the frogs which he had brought against Pharaoh. And HaShem did according to the word of Moshe; and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the villages, and out of the fields. And they gathered them together upon heaps: and the land stank. But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as HaShem had said.

 

3. Lice

Shemot (Exodus) 8:16-19 And HaShem said unto Moshe, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt. And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. And the magicians did so with their enchantments to bring forth lice, but they could not: so there were lice upon man, and upon beast. Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, This [is] the finger of G-d: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as HaShem had said.

 

4. Beasts

Shemot (Exodus) 8:29-32 And Moshe said, Behold, I go out from thee, and I will entreat HaShem that the swarms [of beasts] may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, tomorrow: but let not Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more in not letting the people go to sacrifice to HaShem. And Moshe went out from Pharaoh, and entreated HaShem. And HaShem did according to the word of Moshe; and he removed the swarms [of beasts] from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; there remained not one. And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go.

 

5. Plague

Shemot (Exodus) 9:3-7 Behold, the hand of HaShem is upon thy cattle which [is] in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: [there shall be] a very grievous murrain. And HaShem shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all [that is] the children's of Israel. And HaShem appointed a set time, saying, Tomorrow HaShem shall do this thing in the land. And HaShem did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one. And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go.

 

6. Boils

Shemot (Exodus) 9:10-12 And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moshe sprinkled it up toward heaven; and it became a boil breaking forth [with] blains upon man, and upon beast. And the magicians could not stand before Moshe because of the boils; for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians. And HaShem hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them; as HaShem had spoken unto Moshe.

 

7. Hail mixed with fire

Shemot (Exodus) 9:29 - 10:1 And Moshe said unto him, As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands unto HaShem; [and] the thunder shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know how that the earth [is] HaShem’s. But as for thee and thy servants, I know that ye will not yet fear HaShem G-d. And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley [was] in the ear, and the flax [was] bolled. But the wheat and the rye were not smitten: for they [were] not grown up. And Moshe went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands unto HaShem: and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured upon the earth. And when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, neither would he let the children of Israel go; as HaShem had spoken by Moshe. And HaShem said unto Moshe, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him:

 

8. Locusts

Shemot (Exodus) 10:19-20 And HaShem turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt. But HaShem hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go.

 

9. Darkness

Shemot (Exodus) 10:22-27 And Moshe stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days: They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings. And Pharaoh called unto Moshe, and said, Go ye, serve HaShem; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones also go with you. And Moshe said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto HaShem our G-d. Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve HaShem our G-d; and we know not with what we must serve HaShem, until we come thither. But HaShem hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.

 

10. Death of the first born

 

Shemot (Exodus) 11:4-10 And Moshe said, Thus saith HaShem, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt: And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that [is] behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts. And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more. But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that HaShem doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel. And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger. And HaShem said unto Moshe, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you; that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt. And Moshe and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and HaShem hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land.

 

# of saying of creation

# of plague

1) In the beginning

10) killing of firstborn

Here we see an obvious parallel theme which is that of firstness.

2) Let there be light

9) Darkness

Opposite of light is darkness

3) Firmament (the Heavens)

7) Hail

HaShem made the firmament and now commanded that Hail rain down from it.

4) Waters gather so Earth appear

3) Lice

HaShem revealed the earth and now by the plague we know that the dust of earth transformed into lice (as we see that Aharon threw up dust and it turned into lice)

5) Vegetation appear

8) Locust

Locusts ate the vegetation.

6) Luminaries (sun, moon etc)

5) Epidemic

The idea here is a little deeper but the simple meaning is that the sun has healing powers as mentioned in the Gemara and without the powers of it epidemic became possible.

7) Let water sprout forth living creatures

2) Frogs

HaShem created creatures that came from water, now frogs came in excess out of water.

8) Let earth bring forth living creatures

4) Wild animals

HaShem created living creatures on earth and now those animals came and attacked.

9) Man

6) Boils

The plague of boils was the only one that affected man’s body so directly and so they correspond to each other here.

10) I have given food to eat

1) Water turned to blood

Food of Egypt depended on Nile and nutrients of food are transported through blood.

 

5 parallel 5

We can see other parallels within the 10 plagues as well. If we look at them as two separate sets of 5 we see that again they parallel each other exactly! The first five affected things in the lower world while the last five did so in the higher world.

 

1) Water turned to blood

6) Boils

 

Both related to disease. Blood affected inanimate waters while boils affected humans.

2) Frogs

7) Hail

Both related to water as it says in Taaanit 8b; Bereshit Rabbah Chapter 12- “atmosphere is upper water and the seas are lower waters.” Frogs came from lower waters while Hail came from upper waters.

3) Lice

8) Locusts

Lice crawl on lower earth while locusts fly in upper heaven.

4) Wild animals

9) Darkness

As it says in Tehillim 104:20 wild animals appear at night “You create darkness and it is night when all the wild beasts of the forest creep forth.” Also the Hebrew word for wild animals “orev” is linguistically related to the Hebrew word for night “erev”.

5) Epidemic

10) plague of firstborn

Epidemic affected lower animals while plague of firstborn affected higher beings namely humans. This is why Pharaoh was able to withstand the first 5 plagues without HaShem’s hardening of his heart; because they were on the lower level while the last five were on the higher level.

 

XIX. The Ransom Money

 

Shemot (Exodus) 30:11-16 Then HaShem said to Moshe, "When you take a census of the Israelites to count them, each one must pay HaShem a ransom for his life at the time he is counted. then no plague will come on them when you number them. Each one who crosses over to those already counted is to give a half shekel,* according to the sanctuary shekel, which weighs twenty gera. this half shekel is an offering to HaShem. All who cross over, those twenty years old or more, are to give an offering to HaShem. The rich are not to give more than a half shekel and the poor are not to give less when you make the offering to HaShem to atone for your lives. Receive the atonement money from the Israelites and use it for the service of the Tent of Meeting. it will be a memorial for the Israelites before HaShem, making atonement for your lives."

 

So, the ransom for the life of an Israelite is 10 gera, paid as a half of a shekel.

 

Two concepts were embodied in the half-shekel contribution. Each person gives half a shekel, symbolizing that only in concert with his fellow Jews can he become whole. On the other hand, his gift weighs ten gera, the number that represents wholeness, because everyone should dedicate his entire life to HaShem.[154]

 

Since the ultimate ransom was paid by Messiah, we see how the Torah alluded to Messiah with the half-shekel ransom.

 

XX. Miracles at the Sea of Reeds

 

10 miracles were performed for the Children of Israel at the red sea:

 

1.     The Red Sea was split

2.     The water formed a canopy over their heads

3.     Twelve passages opened

4.     The water became as clear as glass

5.     Dry ground for them and

6.     mud for the Egyptians

7.     The Egyptians had the walls of water turned into rocks, which were thrown against the Egyptians

8.     But crumbled into tiny fragments before the Israelites.

9.     A stream of fresh water flowed through the salty water for the Israelites

10.  The water froze and became hidden in the sea after they drank

 

XXI. The Ten Kal Vachomer

 

During shacharit we mention the thirteen rules of Ishmael. Within these thirteen is the kal Vachomer. A kal Vachomer is an a fortiori logical argument that reasons: If a rule or fact applies in a situation where there is relatively little reason for it to apply, certainly it applies in a situation where there is more reason for it to apply. For example, in the verse: Moshe says, “If Israel, for whom my message is beneficial, will not listen to me, certainly Pharaoh, for whom the message is detrimental, will not listen”[155].

 

Another reason that Pharaoh would not listen is because Moshe was “of blocked lips”, and it is unbefitting that one with a speech defect should speak before the king. However, to the general populace such an impediment is not significant. So, if the Israelites who should not have demurred because of Moshe’s blocked lips, nevertheless ignored him, certainly Pharaoh, who was unused to such speech, would reject his message. Thus, the statement, “I am of blocked lips”, is part of the Val Vachomer. And it is to emphasize this that Rashi commented on “blocked lips” before “So how will Pharaoh listen to me?”[156]

 

Midrash Rabbah - Bereshit (Genesis) XCII:7 AND WHEN THEY WERE GONE OUT OF THE CITY... IS NOT THIS IT IN WHICH MY HaShem DRINKETH... AND HE OVERTOOK THEM... AND THEY SAID UNTO HIM:... BEHOLD, THE MONEY, etc. (XLIV, 4-8). R. Ishmael taught: This is one of the ten a fortiori arguments recorded in the Torah. (i) BEHOLD, THE MONEY, WHICH WE FOUND IN OUR SACKS’ MOUTHS, WE BROUGHT BACK UNTO THEE; does it then not stand to reason, How THEN SHOULD WE STEAL, etc. (ii) Behold, the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me; surely all the more, How then shall Pharaoh hear me (Ex. VI, 12). (iii) Behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye have been rebellious against the Lord; does it not follow then, And how much more after my death (Deut. XXXI, 27). (iv) And the Lord said unto Moshe: If her father had but spit in her face; surely it would stand to reason, Should she not hide in shame seven days Num. XII, 14). (v) If thou hast run with the footmen, and they have wearied thee, is it not logical to say, Then how canst thou contend with horses (Jer. XII, 5). (vi) Behold, we are afraid here in Judah; surely it stands to reason, How much more then if we go to Keilah (I Sam. XXIII, 3). (vii) And if in a land of Peace where thou art secure [thou art overcome], is it not logical to ask, How wilt thou do in the thickets of the Jordan? Jer. loc. cit.). (viii) Behold, the righteous shall be requited in the earth; does it not follow, How much more the wicked and the sinner (Prov. XI, 31). (ix) And the king said unto Esther the queen: The Jews have slain and destroyed five hundred men in Shushan the castle; it stands to reason, What then have they done in the rest of the king's provinces (Est. IX, 12). (x) Behold, when it was whole, it was meet for no work; surely it is logical to argue, How much less, when the fire hath devoured it, and it is singed, etc. (Ezek. XV, 5).)

 

There are 10 Val Chomer arguments, enumerated in Bereshit Rabbah 92:7, that appear in Torah, as cited by Rashi:

 

Bereshit (Genesis) 44:8

Shemot (Exodus) 6:12

Bamidbar (Numbers) 12:14

Devarim (Deuteronomy) 31:27

I Shmuel (Samuel) 23:3

Yeremyahu (Jeremiah) 12:5 (2 arguments)

Yehezechel (Ezekiel) 15:5

Mishlei (Proverbs) 11:31

Esther 9:12

 

XXII. The Foundation of All Sums

 

The following text is quoted from: Avraham Ibn Ezra's Sefer Yesod Mora Ve-Sod Ha-Torah (The Secrets of the Torah):

 

Ten is the foundation of all sums,[157] for all sums that follow ten[158] are made up of a part[159] or parts of ten,[160] or one come into being by doubling ten,[161] multiplying ten[162] or by a combination of the two.[163] Furthermore, it is well known that wind and fire form one sphere, and water and earth a second sphere.[164] There is indisputable proof that these spheres are circled by eight other spheres.[165] All of this clearly adds up to ten. The yod[166] therefore has the shape of the periphery of a circle that encompasses everything in it.[167]

 

The word yod means a gathering.[168] It comes from the same root[169] as the words todah [company[170] and todot [companies][171] in And the other company (Nehemiah 12:38)

 

Now if one starts counting the spheres from the first sphere,[172] then the first sphere is the holy sphere.[173] On the other hand, if one starts the count of the spheres from the lunar sphere,[174] then the tenth sphere is the holy sphere. Both the firstborn and the tenth born are therefore holy.[175] 

 

However, from another point of view, the integers end with nine.[176] For ten is the first of the tens, and one is not considered a number. There are thus only eight numbers.[177] Four of them-namely, two, three, five, and seven-are prime numbers.[178]

 

When we add one, which is a root, and a square, a foundation[179] and a cube, to the square of the first of the even numbers,[180] we get five[181] If we add one to the square of the first of the odd numbers,[182] we get ten.[183]

 

We thus have the revered name of G-d.[184] If we add one to the square of five, we get the sum of G-d's entire name.[185] The same is also the case if we add up the letters that spell out yod, heh.[186] If we add one to the square of seven, we get fifty, [which alludes to] the holy jubilee year[187] and the day when the festival of Shavuot is observed.[188]

 

XXIII. The Descents

 

Midrash Rabbah - Bereshit (Genesis) XXXVIII:9 9. AND HaShem CAME DOWN TO SEE, etc. R. Simeon b. Yohai said: This is one of the ten descents mentioned in the Torah.[189]

 

With ten descents, the Shechinah descended onto the world.

 

1. The first was in the Garden of Eden...

 

2. He descended to punish Adam (Gen 3:8);

 

3. To look at the tower (Gen 11:5);

 

4. To convince Himself of the wickedness of the sinful cities (Gen 18:21);

 

5. To deliver Israel from Egypt (Exo 3:8);

 

6. To drown the Egyptians in the Red Sea (2 Sam 22:10);

 

7. To reveal the Torah (Exo 19:20);

 

8. To make His spirit rest upon the seventy elders (Num 11:5);

 

9. To make the Shechinah dwell in the Temple (Eze 44:21).

 

10. He will also descend in the time to come when He will appear to execute judgment upon Gog.

 

XXIV. The World To Come

 

Midrash Rabbah - Shemot (Exodus) XV:21 ... We do, however, find ten things which the Holy One, blessed be He, will renew in the Time to Come.

 

The first is that He will illumine the whole world, for it says: The sun shall be no more thy light by day... but the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light (Isa. LX, 19). Is there a man able to look at G-d? But what will G-d do to the sun? He will make it give forty-nine times as much light, as it says: And the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold (ib. XXX, 26).[190] When a man shall be sick, G-d will order the sun to heal him; as it says: But unto you that fear My name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wings (Mal. III, 20).

 

The second thing is that He will bring out living water from Jerusalem and heal therewith all those who have a disease, as it says: Every living creature wherewith it swarms, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live;... for these waters are come thither, that all things be healed (Ezekiel 47:9).

 

The third is that He will make trees yield their fruit each month, and when a man eats of them he will be healed,’ for it says: And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for food,... it shall bring forth new fruit every month, because the waters thereof issue out of the sanctuary; and the fruit thereof shall be for food, and the leaf thereof for healing (ibid. 12).

 

The fourth is that they will rebuild all the waste cities so that there shall not be one waste place left in the world[191]; even Sodom and Gomorrah will be rebuilt in the Time to Come, as it says, And thy sisters, Sodom and her daughters, shall return to their former estate (ibid. XVI, 55).

 

The fifth is that He will rebuild Jerusalem with sapphire stones, as it says: Behold, I will set thy stones in fair colours,... And I will make pinnacles of rubies (Isa. LIV, 11, 12). These precious stones will shine like the sun, and the heathens will come and see the glory of Israel, as it is said: And nations shall walk at thy light (ib. LX, 3).

 

The sixth is that The cow and bear shall feed (ib. XI, 7).[192] 

 

The seventh is that He will bring all the wild beasts, birds and creeping things and make a covenant with them and with all Israel, for it says: And in that day will I make a covenant for them with the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of heaven (Hos. II, 20).

 

The eighth is that there will be no more weeping or wailing in the world, for it says: And the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying (Isa. LXV, 19).

 

The ninth is that there will be no more death in the world, for it says: He will swallow up death for ever; and the Lord G-d will wipe away tears from off all faces; and the reproach of His people will He take away (ib. XXV, 8).

 

The tenth is that there will no longer be any sighing, wailing, or anguish, but that all will be rejoicing, for it says: And the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come with singing unto Zion (ib. XXXV, 10).[193]

 

XXV. Created On the Eve of The Sabbath

 

Pesachim 54a Rabbi used to’scatter’ them.[194] R. Hiyya’collected’ them.[195] R. Isaac b. Abdimi said: Though Rabbi scattered them, he subsequently repeated them in [their] order over the cup [of wine], so as to quit his children and household [of their obligation].[196] Yet was light created at the termination of the Sabbath? Surely It was taught: Ten things were created on the eve of the Sabbath at twilight. These are they: the well,[197] the manna, the rainbow,[198] the writing[199] and the writing instrument[s], the Tables,[200] the sepulcher of Moshe, the cave in which Moshe and Elijah stood,[201] the opening of the ass's mouth,[202] and the opening of the earth's mouth to swallow up the wicked.[203] R. Nehemiah said in his father's name: Also fire and the mule.[204] R. Josiah said in his father's name: Also the ram[205] and the shamir.[206]

 

XXVI. The Ten Famines

 

Nine famines have come to the world. There will be a tenth famine in the days before Messiah:

 

Midrash Rabbah - Ruth I:4 THAT THERE WAS A FAMINE IN THE LAND. Ten famines have come upon the world.

 

  1. One in the days of Adam,
  2. one in the days of Lamech,
  3. one in the days of Avraham,
  4. one in the days of Isaac,
  5. one in the days of Jacob,
  6. one in the days of Elijah,
  7. one in the days of Elisha,
  8. one in the days of David,
  9. one in the days when the Shoftim (Judges) judged – mentioned in the days of the Book of Ruth, and
  10. one which is destined still to come upon the world.[207] 

 

One in the days of Adam, as it is said, Cursed is the ground for thy sake (Gen. III, 17); one in the days of Lamech, as it is said, From the ground which the Lord hath cursed (ib. V, 29); one in the days of Avraham, as it is said, And there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt (ib. XII, 10); one in the days of Isaac, as it is said, And there was a famine in the land, beside the first famine (ib. XXVI, 1); one in the days of Jacob, as it is said, For these two years hath the famine been in the land (ib. XLV, 6); one in the days of Elijah, as it is said, There shall not be dew nor rain these years (I Kings XVII, 1); one in the days of Elisha, as it is said, And there was a great famine in Samaria (II Kings VI, 25); one in the days of David, as it is said, And there was a famine in the days of David three years (II Sam. XXI, 1); one in the days of the Shoftim (Judges), as it is said, THERE WAS A FAMINE IN THE LAND; and one which is destined to come to the world, as it is said, That I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of HaShem (Amos VIII, 11).

 

XXVII. The Ten Counts

 

On ten occasions were Israel counted.

Once when they went down to Egypt (cf. Bereshit (Genesis) 46).

A second time when they came out (Shemot (Exodus) 12:37).

A third time after the incident of the Golden Calf (ibid., 30:12).

Twice in the Book of Numbers: once in formation of the camps (Numbers 1) and once in connection with the division of the land (ibid. 26).

Twice in the days of Saul (I Samuel 11:8 and 15:4). The eighth time in the days of David (II Samuel 24:9).

The ninth time they were numbered was in the days of Ezra (Ezra 2:64; Nehemiah 7:66).

The tenth time will be in the future era of Mashiach, when "The flocks shall again pass under the hands of Him that counts them" (Jeremiah 33:13). (Midrash Rabbah)

 

According to a Midrash,[208] Israel was counted only a total of nine times until today, and the tenth time will be when the Messiah comes.

 

XXVIII The Tithe

 

In the Portion of BeChukothai, there is a procedure for set­ting aside a tenth-part levy on livestock, one for each ten heads. All the animals would be placed in an enclosure that had a single narrow opening through which no more than one creature could pass, with the mother-beast left outside the enclosure so that its young would surge towards her. The owner of the herd then positioned himself at the exit with a rod in hand, and as the animals filed out, he counted them one by one. Every tenth beast he would mark with red paint and render it sanc­tified by pronouncing, "This one is the ma'aser-tithe."

 

In this way, the order in which they entered the enclosure would be the reverse of the order in which they came out, with the first one in exit­ing last.

 

This was the procedure followed by our patriarch Jacob when he was about to set aside the ma'aser levy from the possessions that HaShem gave him, in fulfillment of his pledge, "Of all that You give me, I will set aside a tenth-tithe to You" - Bereshit (Genesis) 28:22.

 

[Inasmuch as the tenth one becomes consecrated to HaShem and is reserved for a sacred purpose, the aforementioned has implications also for human offspring. If we follow the rule that the first one in is the last one out, and the last one in is the first one out, the counting begins with the last offspring born and continues up to the first-born.] Therefore, when Jacob wished to set aside one son as the ma'aser, he began the count with the last-born, Benjamin. Counting backwards and applying the rule of, "every tenth one being consecrated to HaShem" (Leviticus 27:32), Jacob determined Levi to be that tenth son who would be con­secrated to HaShem.

 

Thus it was that when Levi was born, the Archangel Michael came down from heaven, and picking up the new-born child, brought him before the Throne of Glory

 

"Master of the universe," said he, "this child is destined to be a por­tion before You, holy unto HaShem."

 

Whereupon HaShem extended His right hand [signifying spiritual bless­ings,] and pronounced the blessing upon him that his descendants should serve in the Beit HaMikdash, even as the ministering angels stand in readiness On-High to minister before Him.

 

Ten Passovers

 

While the Passover was to be observed every year, only ten specific Passovers are recorded in the Bible. The following is a chronological listing of the recorded Passovers in the Bible. The first is of course in Egypt, when the Passover was first instituted by the Lord.

 

(1) The First (1)

 

Exodus 12:1-3... 1And HaShem spake unto Moshe and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, 2This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. 3Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house: 4...

 

(2) The Second (2)

 

Numbers 9:1-5 And HaShem spake unto Moshe in the wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, saying, 2Let the children of Israel also keep the Passover at his appointed season. 3In the fourteenth day of this month, at even, ye shall keep it in his appointed season: according to all the rites of it, and according to all the ceremonies thereof, shall ye keep it. 4And Moshe spake unto the children of Israel, that they should keep the Passover. 5And they kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the first month at even in the wilderness of Sinai: according to all that HaShem commanded Moshe, so did the children of Israel.

 

(3) The Third (3)

 

Joshua 5:10-12 10And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal, and kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even in the plains of Jericho. 11And they did eat of the old corn of the land on the morrow after the Passover, unleavened cakes, and parched corn in the selfsame day. 12And the manna ceased on the morrow after they had eaten of the old corn of the land; neither had the children of Israel manna any more; but they did eat of the fruit of the land of Canaan that year.

 

(4) The Fourth (4)

 

2 Chronicles 30:1-2 1And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of HaShem at Jerusalem, to keep the Passover unto HaShem G-d of Israel. 2For the king had taken counsel, and his princes, and all the congregation in Jerusalem, to keep the Passover in the second month.

 

(5) The Fifth (5)

 

2 Chronicles 35:17-19 17And the children of Israel that were present kept the Passover at that time, and the feast of unleavened bread seven days. 18And there was no Passover like to that kept in Israel from the days of Samuel the prophet; neither did all the kings of Israel keep such a Passover as Josiah kept, and the priests, and the Levites, and all Judah and Israel that were present, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. 19In the eighteenth year of the reign of Josiah was this Passover kept.

 

(6) The Sixth (6)

 

Ezra 6:19-22 19And the children of the captivity kept the Passover upon the fourteenth day of the first month. 20For the priests and the Levites were purified together, all of them were pure, and killed the Passover for all the children of the captivity, and for their brethren the priests, and for themselves. 21And the children of Israel, which were come again out of captivity, and all such as had separated themselves unto them from the filthiness of the heathen of the land, to seek HaShem G-d of Israel, did eat, 22And kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days with joy: for HaShem had made them joyful, and turned the heart of the king of Assyria unto them, to strengthen their hands in the work of the house of G-d, the G-d of Israel.

 

(7) The Seventh (7)

 

Luke 2:41-43 41Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the Passover. 42And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem after the custom of the feast. 43And when they had fulfilled the days, as they returned, the child Yeshua tarried behind in Jerusalem; and Joseph and his mother knew not of it.

 

(8) The Eighth (8)

 

John 2:13-19 13And the JewsPassover was at hand, and Yeshua went up to Jerusalem, 14And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting: 15And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers’ money, and overthrew the tables; 16And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father’s house an house of merchandise. 17And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up. 18Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things? 19Yeshua answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.

 

 (9) The Ninth (9)

 

John 6:3-13 3And Yeshua went up into a mountain, and there he sat with his disciples. 4And the Passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh. 5When Yeshua then lifted up his eyes, and saw a great company come unto him, he saith unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread, that these may eat? 6And this he said to prove him: for he himself knew what he would do. 7Philip answered him, Two hundred pennyworth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one of them may take a little. 8One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, saith unto him, 9There is a lad here, which hath five barley loaves, and two small fishes: but what are they among so many? 10And Yeshua said, Make the men sit down. Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand. 11And Yeshua took the loaves; and when he had given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to them that were set down; and likewise of the fishes as much as they would. 12When they were filled, he said unto his disciples, Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost. 13Therefore they gathered them together, and filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley loaves, which remained over and above unto them that had eaten.

 

(10) The Tenth (10)

 

Matthew 26:1-5 1And it came to pass, when Yeshua had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, 2Ye know that after two days is the feast of the Passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified. 3Then assembled together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas, 4And consulted that they might take Yeshua by subtlety, and kill him. 5But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the people.

 

* * *

 

The Arizal explains that numbers have their origins in the supernal spiritual worlds. Single digit numbers correspond to the physical realm Asiyah, the sefirat Malkhut. Tens correspond to the angelic realm Yetzirah, the sefirat Tiferet. Hundreds correspond to the Neshama realm Beriah, the sefirat Binah, Imma. Being that hundreds emanate from the realm of Imma, they are the source of blessing. Therefore, all offerings are the rectification of 100% of the produce offered.


 

 

Chief Hakham of the bench of three

Black

10: Israel sings the redemption song: Isaiah 30:29

Kenites

2nd of the bench of three

Gray

9. Solomon sang the: Song of Songs

Kenizzites

3rd of the bench of three

White

8. David sang for the miracles: II Samuel 22:1

Kadmonites

Parnas

Red

7. Hannah, with son, sang: 1 Samuel 2:1

Hittites

Parnas

Orange

6. Deborah and Barak sang: Judges 5:1

Perizzites

Parnas

Yellow

5. Joshua sang and the sun stopped: Joshua 10:12

Rephaites

Darshan or Magid

Green

4. Moshe, before he died, sang: Deuteronomy 32:1

Amorites

Sheliach

Blue

3. Israel sang the well song: Numbers 21:17

Canaanites

Masoret

Indigo

2. Moshe composed the sea song: Exodus 15:1

Girgashites

Meturgeman/Moreh/Zaqen

Violet

1. Adam composed the Sabbath song: Psalm 92

Jebusites

 

 

Chief Hakham of the bench of three

10: Israel sings the redemption song: Isaiah 30:29

Psalm 150 Praise HaShem. Praise G-d in his sanctuary

2nd of the bench of three

9. Solomon sang the: Song of Songs

praise him in his mighty heavens

3rd of the bench of three

8. David sang for the miracles: II Samuel 22:1

Praise him for his acts of power

Parnas

7. Hannah, with son, sang: 1 Samuel 2:1

praise him for his surpassing greatness

Parnas

6. Deborah and Barak sang: Judges 5:1

Praise him with the sounding of the shofar

Parnas

5. Joshua sang and the sun stopped: Joshua 10:12

praise him with the harp and lyre

Darshan or Magid

4. Moshe, before he died, sang: Deuteronomy 32:1

Praise him with tambourine and dancing

Sheliach

3. Israel sang the well song: Numbers 21:17

praise him with the strings and flute

Masoret

2. Moshe composed the sea song: Exodus 15:1

Praise him with the clash of cymbals, praise him with resounding cymbals

Meturgeman/Moreh/Zaqen

1. Adam composed the Sabbath song: Psalm 92

Let everything that has breath praise HaShem. Praise HaShem

 

The following chart is used to illustrate some of the relationships that can be discerned from the meaning of ten with it’s divisions. There are several such patterns:

The seven visible and the three hidden.

The five of heaven and the five of earth.

The Three, Three, Three, and one.


 

Earth

Heaven

The seven which are revealed (Revelation of Power)

The three which are concealed (Justice)

This was brought on by G-d

 

A universal G-d

 

HaShem’s Providence

 

HaShem's Existence

Left Thumb

Left Index finger

Left middle finger

Left Ring

finger

Left Pinkie finger

Right Pinkie finger

Right Ring finger

Right middle finger

Right Index finger

Right Thumb

Left Pinkie finger

Left Ring

finger

Left middle finger

Left Index finger

Left Thumb

Right Thumb

Right Index finger

Right middle finger

Right Ring finger

Right Pinkie finger

Malchut

Kingdom

Yesod

Foundation

Hod

Majesty

Netzach

Eternity

Teferet

Beauty

Din / Gevurah

Judgment / Power

Chesed

Mercy

Binah

Understanding

Chochmah Wisdom

Keter

crown

Seder Plate

Chazeret

Horseradish

Lettuce

Karpas

Celery

 

Charoset

Date nut mix

 

Maror

Bitter Herbs

 

Beitzah

Egg

Zeroa

Shank Bone

Matza

Unleavened Bread

Matza

Unleavened Bread

Matza

Unleavened Bread

Israel

sings the redemption song:

Yeshayahu 30:29

Solomon

sang the:

 

 

Shir HaShirim

David

sang for the miracles:

 

II Shmuel 22:1

Hannah,

with son, sang:

 

 

1 Shmuel 2:1

Deborah

and Barak sang:

 

 

Shoftim 5:1

Yehoshua

sang and the sun stopped:

 

Yehoshua 10:12

Moshe

before he died, sang:

 

Devarim 32:1

Israel

sang the well song:

 

Bamidbar 21:17

Moshe composed the sea song:

 

Shemot 15:1

Adam

composed the Sabbath song:

 

Tehillim 92

Measure of Night

Measure of Day

Water

Wind

Darkness

Light

Bohu [desolation]

Tohu [chaos]

Earth

Heaven

Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods.

 

Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.

 

 

Thou shalt not steal.

 

 

Thou shalt not commit adultery.

 

 

Thou shalt not murder.

 

 

Honor thy father and thy mother

 

 

Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy.

 

Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy G-d in vain

 

 

Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.

I am HaShem thy G-d, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

 

Let everything that has breath praise HaShem. Praise HaShem.

 

Psalm 150:1-6

Praise him with the clash of cymbals, praise him with resounding cymbals

Psalm 150:1-6

 

 

Praise him with the strings and flute

 

Psalm 150:1-6

 

 

Praise him with tambourine and dancing

 

Psalm 150:1-6

 

 

Praise him with the harp and lyre

 

 

Psalm 150:1-6

 

 

Praise him with the sounding of the shofar

 

Psalm 150:1-6

 

 

Praise him for his surpassing greatness

 

Psalm 150:1-6

 

 

Praise him for his acts of power

 

 

Psalm 150:1-6

 

 

Praise him in his mighty heavens

 

 

Psalm 150:1-6

 

 

Praise HaShem. Praise G-d in his sanctuary

 

Psalm 150:1-6

Jebusites

Girgashites

Canaanites

Amorites

Rephaites

Perizzites

Hittites

Kadmonites

Kenizzites

Kenites

Ishim

the humanlike angels who appear to mankind as human beings

Keruvim

the childlike angels

Benei Elohim

the workers for the elohim angels

Elohim

the Shoftim (Judges) of the lower realms

Malachim

 the messengers

Seraphim

the burning ones, the reptilians

Chashmalim

'the fiery beings which communicate

Er'elim

the great, exalted ones

Ofanim

 the wheel angels

The holy Hayot

 who are above all others

 

The shamir

The mouth of Moshe’s grave

The mouth of Balaam’s donkey

 

Miriam’s well

 

The manna

 

The stylus

 

The tablets

 

Aaron’s rod

 

The rainbow

 

The ram substituted for Isaac

Passover Matthew 26:1-5

Passover

John 6:3-13

Passover

John 2:13-19

Passover

Luke 2:41-43

Passover

Ezra 6:19-22

Passover

2 Chronicles 35:17-19

Passover

2 Chronicles 30:1-2

Passover

Joshua 5:10-12

Passover Numbers 9:1-5

Passover

Exodus 12:1-3

Adam was striped of his heavenly garments

His food would be the grasses of the field

 

He was to earn his daily food in sorrow

His children were condemned to wander from land to land

His body would sweat

Animals would have the power to kill him

He would no longer live forever

His days would be full of trouble

He would become dust

He would have to answer for all his deeds on earth

Violet

Indigo

Blue

Green

Yellow

Orange

Red

White

Gray

Black

A blessing to all who bless you

A curse to all who curse you

your mother’s sons shall bow down to you

You shall be master over your brothers

And bow down to you

Nations shall serve you

Plenty of wine

Plenty of grain

The fat of the land

G-d give you the dew of heaven

Anon

Man of G-d

Micah

Man of G-d

Elisha

Man of G-d

Elijah

Man of G-d

Ido

Man of

G-d

Shmemaya

Man of

G-d

David

Man of G-d

Samuel

Man of G-d

Elkanah

Man of G-d

Moshe

Man of G-d

No man said to his fellow person: “The place is too crowded for me [so] I should lodge in Jerusalem

Never did a serpent or scorpion do harm in Jerusalem

The people stood pressed together yet bowed themselves at ease

There was never a defect found in the omer, in the two loaves, or in the showbread

No one prevailed over the column of smoke that arose from the altar

The rain never quenched the fire on the altar

No unclean accident ever happened to the High Priest on the Day of Atonement

No fly was seen in the slaughterhouse

The holy meat never turned putrid

No woman miscarried from the scent of the holy meat

God comes to Avimelech to warn him about Sarah.

 

Bereshit 20:3ff

Jacob dreams about a ladder.

 

 

 

Bereshit 28:12ff

Jacob dreams about speckled sheep.

 

 

Bereshit 31:10ff

Laban dreams and told to leave Jacob alone.

 

 

Bereshit 31:24ff

Yosef dreams about sheaves.

 

 

 

Bereshit 37:5ff

Yosef dreams about the sun, moon, and stars.

 

 

Bereshit 37:9ff

Cupbearer dreams about wine.

 

 

Bereshit 40:9ff

Baker dreams about bread.

 

 

 

Bereshit 40:16ff

Paro dreams about cows.

 

 

 

Bereshit 41:1ff

Paro dreams about sheaves.

 

 

 

Bereshit 41:5ff

Then G-d said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness…

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bereshit 1:26

G-d blessed them and said, "Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth."

 

 

Bereshit 1:22

And G-d said, "Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky."

 

 

 

Bereshit 1:20

And G-d said…let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth."

 

 

 

 

 

Bereshit 1:15

Then G-d said, "Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds."

Bereshit 1:11

And G-d said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear."

 

 

 

 

 

Bereshit 1:9

G-d called the expanse "sky."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bereshit 1:8

G-d said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water."

 

 

 

 

 

Bereshit 1:6

G-d said, "Let there be light."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bereshit 1:3

In the beginning G-d created the heavens and the earth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bereshit 1:1

Death of the firstborn. Shemot 12:29

Darkness.

 

Shemot 10:22

Locusts everywhere. Shemot 10:13

Hail mixed with fire.

Shemot 9:23

Festering boils.

 

Shemot 9:10

Livestock all dies.

Shemot 9:6

Beasts

 

Shemot 8:24

Dust becomes gnats.

Shemot 8:17

Frogs

 

Shemot 8:5

Water is turned into blood. Shemot 7:20

 

 

 

Avraham had to sacrifice his son Isaac.

 

 

 

Bereshit 22

 

 

 

Avraham had to send away his son Ishmael.

 

 

 

Bereshit 21:10-12

 

 

 

Avimelech takes Avraham’s wife.

 

 

 

 

Bereshit 20:2

 

 

 

At 99 Avraham was circumcised.

 

 

 

 

Bereshit 17:11

At the “Covenant between the Parts”, Avraham had to choose between purgatory and exile for his descendants.

Bereshit 15

 

 

 

Avraham went to war against the four kings.

 

 

 

Bereshit 14:13-16

 

Sarah, Avraham’s wife, was kidnapped and brought to Pharaoh’s palace.

 

 

Bereshit 12:15

 

 

Avraham suffered hunger during the famine in Canaan.

 

 

Bereshit 12:10

 

 

 

G-d made Avraham leave his father’s house.

 

 

Bereshit 12:1

 

 

 

Nimrod casts Avraham into a fiery furnace.

 

 

 

Pesachim 118a

The water froze and became hidden in the sea after they drank

A stream of fresh water flowed through the salty water for the Israelites

But crumbled into tiny fragments before the Israelites

The Egyptians had the walls of water turned into rocks, which were thrown against the Egyptians

Mud for the Egyptians

Dry ground for Israelites

The water became as clear as glass

12 passages opened

The water formed a canopy over their heads

The Red Sea was split

Eretz Yisrael

Walled towns

Within the walls of Yerushalayim

Har HaBayit (Temple Mount)

The Chil (a walled area within the Har HaBayit)

The Ezras Nashim

The Ezras Kohanim

Between the Ulam (the Hall into the Holy) and the altar

The Heichal (the Kodesh)

The Kodesh Kodeshim

The tenth is that there will no longer be any sighing, wailing or anguish, but that all will be rejoicing

The ninth is that there will be no more death in the world

The eighth is that there will be no more weeping or wailing in the world

The seventh is that He will bring all the wild beasts, birds and creeping things and make a covenant with them and with all Israel

The sixth is that The cow and bear shall feed

The fifth is that He will rebuild Jerusalem with sapphire stones

The fourth is that they will rebuild all the waste cities so that there shall not be one waste place left in the world

The third is that He will make trees yield their fruit each month, and when a man eats of them he will be healed

The second thing is that He will bring out living water from Jerusalem and heal therewith all those who have a disease

The first is that He will illumine the whole world

Meturgeman / Moreh / Zaqen

Masoret

Sheliach

Darshan or Magid

Parnas

Parnas

Parnas

3rd of the bench of three

2nd of the bench of three

Chief Hakham of the bench of three

Famine in the days of

Adam

Famine in the days of

Lamech

Famine in the days of Avraham

Famine in the days of

Isaac

Famine in the days of

Jacob

Famine in the days of

Elijah

Famine in the days of

Elisha

Famine in the days of

David

Famine in the days of

Ruth

Famine in the days before Mashiach

Behold, when it was whole, it was meet for no work; surely it is logical to argue, How much less, when the fire hath devoured it, and it is singed, etc.

Yehezechel 15:5

And the king said unto Esther the queen: The Jews have slain and destroyed five hundred men in Shushan the castle; it stands to reason, What then have they done in the rest of the king's provinces

Esther 9:12

Behold, the righteous shall be requited in the earth; does it not follow, How much more the wicked and the sinner

Mishlei 11:31

And if in a land of Peace where thou art secure [thou art overcome], is it not logical to ask, How wilt thou do in the thickets of the Jordan? Yeremyahu 12:5

Behold, we are afraid here in Judah; surely it stands to reason, How much more then if we go to Keilah

I Shmuel 23:3

If thou hast run with the footmen, and they have wearied thee, is it not logical to say, Then how canst thou contend with horses Yeremyahu 12:5

And the Lord said unto Moshe: If her father had but spit in her face; surely it would stand to reason, Should she not hide in shame seven days

Bamidbar 12:14

Behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye have been rebellious against the Lord; does it not follow then, And how much more after my death Devarim 31:27

Behold, the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me; surely all the more, How then shall Pharaoh hear me

Shemot 6:12

Behold, the money, which we found in our sacks’ mouths, we brought back unto thee; does it then not stand to reason, How then should we steal, etc. Bereshit 44:8

He will also descend in the time to come when He will appear to execute judgment upon Gog.

To make the Shechinah dwell in the Temple Yehezechel 44:21

To make His spirit rest upon the seventy elders

Bamidbar 11:5

To reveal the Torah

Shemot19:20

To drown the Egyptians in the Red Sea

2 Shmuel 22:10

To deliver Israel from Egypt

Shemot 3:8

To convince Himself of the wickedness of the sinful cities

Bereshut 18:21

To look at the tower

Bereshut 11:5

He descended to punish Adam Bereshut 3:8

The first was in the Garden of Eden

Counted in the future era of Mashiach

Counted in the days of Ezra Ezra 2:64; Nehemiah 7:66

Counted in the days of David

II Shmuel 24:9

Counted in the days of Saul

I Samuel 15:4

Counted in the days of Saul

I Shmuel 11:8

Counted for the division of the land

Bamidbar 26

Counted in formation of the camps Bamidbar 1

Counted after the incident of the Golden Calf Shemot 30:12

Counted when they came out Shemot 12:37

Counted when they went down to Egypt Bereshit 46

Mashiach’s

Red Heifer

Ishmael ben Piabi

Red Heifer

Hanamel

the Egyptian

Red Heifer

Eliehoenai the son of Hokkof (Caiaphas)

Red Heifer

Johanan

the High priest’s Red Heifer

Johanan

the High priest’s Red Heifer

Simeon the Just’s

Red Heifer

Simeon the Just’s

Red Heifer

Ezra’s

Red Heifer

Moshe’s

Red Heifer

Shechina went from the wilderness it ascended and abode in its own place

Shechina went from the mountain to the wilderness

Shechina went from the town to the mountain

Shechina went from the wall to the town

Shechina went from the roof to the wall

Shechina went from the altar to the roof

Shechina went from the court to the altar

Shechina went from the threshold to the court

Shechina went from the Cherub to the threshold [of the Holy of Holies]

Shechina went from the Ark-cover to the Cherub

Dates

Olives

Pomegranates

Figs

Grapes

Barley

Wheat

Spelt

Oats

Rye

Not to plough with an ox and a donkey

Mitzvot that are performed with the grain until it becomes bread

Not to sow Kil'ayim

Mitzvot that are performed with the grain until it becomes bread

Leket

Mitzvot that are performed with the grain until it becomes bread

Shikchah

Mitzvot that are performed with the grain until it becomes bread

Pei'ah

Mitzvot that are performed with the grain until it becomes bread

Not to muzzle an ox while it is threshing

Mitzvot that are performed with the grain until it becomes bread

T'rumah

Mitzvot that are performed with the grain until it becomes bread

Ma'aser Rishon

Mitzvot that are performed with the grain until it becomes bread

Ma'aser Sheini

Mitzvot that are performed with the grain until it becomes bread

Challah

Mitzvot that are performed with the grain until it becomes bread

Organ of Brit Mila

Left Foot

Right Foot

Left Hand

Right Hand

Tongue

Left Ear

Right Ear

Left Eye

Right Eye

Hallelujah

[Praise HaShem]

 

synonym of praise

Hodayah

[thanksgiving]

 

synonym of praise

Tefillah

[prayer]

 

synonym of praise

Tehillah

[praise]

 

synonym of praise

Ashre

[happy]

 

synonym of praise

Shir

[song]

 

synonym of praise

Mizmor

[psalm]

 

synonym of praise

Maskil

[a psalm giving instruction] synonym of praise

Niggun

[melody]

 

synonym of praise

Nizzuah

[victory]

 

synonym of praise

Yom Hakippurim

The days of Awe

Tishri 9

 

The days of Awe

Tishri 8

 

The days of Awe

Tishri 7

 

The days of Awe

Tishri 6

 

The days of Awe

Tishri 5

 

The days of Awe

Tishri 4

 

The days of Awe

Fast of Gedaliyah

The days of Awe

Yom Teruah

 

The days of Awe

Yom Teruah

 

The days of Awe

Zebulon

Ten brothers

Issachar

Ten brothers

Asher

Ten brothers

Gad

Ten brothers

Naptali

Ten brothers

Dan

Ten brothers

Judah

Ten brothers

Levi

Ten brothers

Simeon

Ten brothers

Reuben

Ten brothers

Gad, Geuel the son of Machi

 

 

Evil congregation

Naphtali, Nahbi the son of Vophsi

 

Evil congregation

Asher, Sethur the son of Michael

 

Evil congregation

Dan, Ammiel the son of Gemalli

 

Evil congregation

Joseph, of the tribe of Manasseh, Gaddi the son of Susi.

Evil congregation

Zebulun, Gaddiel the son of Sodi

 

Evil congregation

Benjamin, Palti the son of Raphu

 

 

Evil congregation

Issachar, Igal the son of Joseph

 

 

Evil congregation

Simeon, Shaphat the son of Hori

 

 

Evil congregation

Reuben, Shammua the son of Zaccur

 

Evil congregation

The sin of the Ten Spies (who returned from spying the Land of Israel with a negative report) Bamidbar 14

Eirchin 15a

Complaining for meat

Bamidbar 11:4-6

The sin of the Golden Calf Shemot 32:1-6

Complaining for water at Refidim Shemot 17:1-3

Searching for Manna on the morning of the Sabbath

Shemot 16:27

Leaving over Manna -- in defiance of the command not to leave Manna overnight

Shemot 16:20

Complaining for food at the Desert of Sean Shemot 16:2-3

Complaining for water at Marah Shemot 15:24

After safely crossing the Sea, Israel suspected that the Egyptians ascended on the opposite bank -- until G-d had the water spit them out.

The Children of Israel complained to Moses: "Was it for a lack of graves in Egypt that you took us to die in the desert?"

Shemot 14:11.

The remembrance of Jerusalem.

Tehillim 137:5-6

The command, “You shall remember HaShem your God, for it is He who gives you the strength to acquire wealth.

Devarim 8:18

The incident involving Miriam.

Devarim 24:9

That Balak and Bilam conspired to do harm to our fathers so that we may know the righteousness of HaShem.

Micah 6:5

That our fathers angered Hashem in the desert, especially with the golden calf.

Devarim 9:8

The assembly at Mount Sinai.

Devarim 4:9-10

The incident involving Amalek.

Devarim 25:17-19

The manna

Devarim 8:2-3

The Shabbat

Shemot 20:8

The Exodus from Egypt.

Shemot 13:3

Moon

Lavanah

Mercury

Kokav

Venus

Nogah

Sun

Chamah

Mar

Madim

Jupiter

Zedek

Saturn

Shabbtai

Neptune

Uranus

Pluto

Allegory - Chidah

Metaphor - Melitzah

Parable - Mashal

Burden - Masa

Command - Tzivuy

Prophecy - Nevuah

Influx - Hatafah

Saying - Amirah

Speech - Dibbur

Vision – Chazon

(Levels of prophecy)

Peretz

Chetzron

Ram

Amminadov

Nachshon

Salma

Boaz

Oved

Yishay

David

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

* * *

 


This study was written by

Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David

(Greg Killian).

Comments may be submitted to:

 

Rabbi Dr. Greg Killian

4544 Highline Drive SE

Olympia, WA 98501

 

Internet address: gkilli@aol.com

Web page: http://www.betemunah.org/

 

(360) 918-2905

 

Return to The WATCHMAN home page

Send comments to Greg Killian at his email address: gkilli@aol.com

 

 



[1] Tanach is an acronym from Torah (Law), Neviim (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings) – the so called Old Testament.

[2] See Brachoth 21b, and Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 55

[3] See Succah 5a about Moshe and Eliyahu ascending to heaven

[4] "The Artscroll Tanach Series: Bereishis", volume 1(a), Mesorah Publications, page 206. Translation and commentary by Rabbi Meir Zlotowitz.

[5] These 10 sayings are also mentioned in Avoth Chapter 5, mishna 1

[6] The meaning of this is discussed infra in the Gemara.

[7] Ps. CL, 3.

[8] Because these were prefaced by the blowing of the shofar.

[9] Because these were prefaced by the blowing of the shofar.

[10] New Year being the anniversary of the creation.

[11] Ps. XXXIII, 6. Hence the first verse of Bereshit (Genesis) is equivalent to’In the beginning G-d said, Let there be heaven and earth’.

[12] Ab. v, l. R H. 32a.

[13] These are interpreted as though they read: In the beginning G-d said,’Let there be heaven and earth’; and G-d said,’Let there be Ruach’ (E.V.’ spirit’ but apparently rendered here’ wind’).

[14]‘Ruach,’ E.V.’ spirit’. M.K. explains: see the greatness of the wind, that His creation required a separate order! Thus he agrees with the first Tanna

[15] Rambam, Hilchot Parah Adumah 3:4.Laws of the Red Heifer, ch. III: end

[16] Yeshayahu 26:1

[17] Ezra III, 9.

[18] Ps. XVI, II.

[19] Lit.,’on the eighth’. Ibid. XII, 1.

[20] Ps. XCII, 4.

[21] Ibid. XXXIII, 2, 3.

[22] Shemot (Exodus) 24:7

[23] Braude, Pesikta Rabbati 1:443-46

[24] Isaiah 60:19

[25] Jeremiah 2:13

[26] Habakkuk 1:13-14

[27] Chabad essay on the internet

[28] Jerusalem Talmud, Shekalim 6:1

[29] Isaiah 60:19

[30] Jeremiah 2:13

[31] Habakkuk 1:13-14

[32] Chapter 57

[33] Sefer Yetzirah 1:3. This is one of the earliest books on the Cabala. Saadia Gaon was among the first great scholars to write a commentary on it. It is written in profound symbolic language.

[34] In our version of Sefer Yetzirah: "Ten Emanations"; the word "with" is not present.

[35] Shemoth Rabbah 41:7.

[36] Since the Torah was the instrument with which the world was created, the first Tablet containing our duties towards G-d thus corresponds to heaven, while the second Tablet which states our duties to man corresponds to earth (Etz Yoseph, ibid.)

[37] The symbol is that of the bestower and the bestowed. Heaven is the bestower and earth is the bestowed. So also is the relationship between G-d and man.

[38] V. e.g., superscriptions to Ps. XLII, XLIV, and XLV; perhaps lit.,’a psalm giving instruction.’

[39] Thus he interprets’Jah’ separately.

[40] In the Temple where the Sanhedrin met.

[41] I Chron. II, 55. The various names are understood in the sense that they were eminent scholars.

[42] Shoftim (Judges). I, 16; v. Sanh. (Sonc. ed.) p. 722.

[43] v. Deut. XXXIV, 1-3

[44] I.e., which part of the land promised to Abram (Gen. XV, 18-21) was not shown to Moshe on Mount Nebo?

[45] Tribes of North Arabia

[46] Asia and Aspamia (Apamea) were names usually given to places in Asia Minor. But probably places nearer Palestine were meant. [V. Weinstein, Essaer, p. 18.]

[47] V. Deut. VII, 1.

[48] Jast.: The Roman province embracing the west part of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bequeathed by King Attalus to the Roman Republic.

[49] Several towns, especially one in Bithynia, one in Mesopotamia, and one in Syria (Jast.).

[50] For a discussion of the various places mentioned in this passage, v. Th. ad loc.

[51] Once again’-as though through G-d's promise this had already been the case.

[52] This was proverbial: the unclean swine is always surrounded by a large litter of its offspring, whereas the clean sheep is alone.

[53] The ten generations are also in Avoth chapter 5, mishna 2.

[54] Shemot (Exodus) 19:6

[55] Bereshit (Genesis) 6:3

[56] Bereshit (Genesis) 11:1-9

[57] 1 Corinthians 15:45

[58] This entire section is an excerpt from "The Artscroll Tanach Series: Bereishis", volume 1(a), Mesorah Publications, page 207. Translation and commentary by Rabbi Meir Zlotowitz.

[59] An extract from "Igeret Hakodesh" Of The Ramban - The Holiness Of Marital Relations

[60] Lit.,’made ten journeys’, before the destruction of the first Temple.

[61] Before and after the destruction of the second Temple.

[62] The text here incorrectly inserts,’and from one cherub to the other’.

[63] Of sacrifice.

[64] I.e., heaven.

[65] Hos. V, 15.

[66] The text here incorrectly inserts,’and from one cherub to the other’.

[67] Ex. XXV, 22. This shows that the original abode of the Shechinah was over the ark-cover. The text here inserts,’and it is written, And he rode upon a cherub and did fly’ (II Sam. XXII, 11), which is omitted by Rashi.

[68] Ezek. IX, 3, describing the departure of the divine glory from the Temple.

[69] Ibid. X, 4.

[70] Amos IX, I. These words were spoken long before the destruction of the Temple, but they are taken by the Talmud as prophetic.

[71] Prov. XXI, 9. These words are put by the Talmud in the mouth of the Shechinah, the’contentious woman’ being the idol which was placed in the Temple.

[72] Amos VII, 7. Cf. supra n. 8.

[73] Micah VI, 9. Cf. supra n. 8.

[74] Ezek. XI, 23.

[75] Prov. XXI, 19. Cf. supra n. 9.

[76] Hosea 5:15.

[77] Yesodei HaTorah 2:7

[78] Shemot 12:1

[79] Bamidbar 6:22

[80] So the text as emended by Bah.

[81] (Be-) Hozae, Khuzistan.

[82] Ex. XL, 17.

[83] I.e., it was pre-eminent in ten things.

[84] I.e., it was a Sunday.

[85] To make their offerings for the dedication of the Tabernacle, v. Num. VII.

[86] When Aaron began to officiate as a priest, v. Lev. IX; before that Divine Service was performed by first-borns.

[87] V. ibid. 24.

[88] I.e., flesh of sacrifices, which had henceforth to be eaten within a fixed locale, whereas hitherto it might be consumed anywhere.

[89] By Aaron, v. ibid. 22.

[90] Upon which sacrifices were offered before the erection of the Tabernacle.

[91] Lit.,’solemn assembly’ — the Feast of Weeks.

[92] I.e., one falls four days later in the week than the previous year's, since the Jewish year, which is lunar, consists of three hundred and fifty-four days.

[93] An extra month of twenty-nine days being intercalated.

[94] Tosef. Yoma II, 2.

[95] V. supra 20b.

[96] Lev. XVI, 23

[97] Infra 70b.

[98] Did Aaron, have to interrupt the service, interpolating the offering up of his and the people's ram, between the incense and the bringing out of censer and coal-pan?

[99] One immersion each for the continual offering of the morning, for the service of the day, which includes censer — and coal-pan — function, and one between that and the offering up of the rams, which includes the additional, and the continual afternoon offering. Thus there would be three immersions only as against the five traditionally reported. Hence the necessity of a change in the program, hence the interpolation of the offering of the rams between the service within (the day's service) and the bringing out of censer and coal-pan. So that the censer — and coal-pan — function now interrupts between the offerings of the rams and the continual afternoon-offering, with the result that there are now five immersions necessary; one for the morning's continual offering, in the golden garments; one for the service of the day in white garments; one for the offering of the two rams on the outer altar in the golden garments; one for the taking out of censer and coal-pan in white garments; and the fifth for the additional, and the continual afternoon offering in the golden garments. Thus tradition and text are harmonized, the five immersions implying ten sanctifications, one each, before each putting off, and before each putting on, of the garments required for each service.

[100] Lev. XVI, 23, 24.

[101] I.e., from a service performed within the Tent of Meeting to one performed outside and vice versa.

[102] Ibid. 4.

[103] Whether on the view of Rabbi or of R. Judah.

[104] [This is the continuation of Rabbi's statement and the reference is to Lev. XVI, 23, 24. The words’he shall wash’, being placed between’he shall put off’ and’he shall put on’, are taken by Rabbi as referring both to stripping and the robing, each requiring a separate washing (sanctification), this in contradistinction to R. Judah who derives from it supra the need of all immersion between every change of service v. infra 32b.]

[105] During the rest of the days of the year (as against the Day of Atonement) the law of the Torah does not require immersion before each service, only by Rabbinic ordinance, the purpose of which is to keep the priest conscious of risks to his cleanliness, is such immersion necessary. (V. supra 30a.)

[106] V. Ex. XL, 32.

[107] On the Day of Atonement, at every change of garment.

[108] As is inferred a minori.

[109] [To be inserted with some MSS. V. D.S.]

[110] The verses in question (Lev. XVI, 23, 24) occurring in connection with the stripping of the white garments.

[111] Pressed, squeezed together in the Temple. Rashi would have it as a simile of a’floating mass’, immovable in a swaying mob.

[112] Lit.,’House of the Mercy Seat’, v. supra p. 73, n. 5.

[113] Another reading has’unto our forefathers in etc.’

[114] Of new barley offered on the second day of Passover, Lev. XXIII, 10f.

[115] The first fruits of the wheat harvest offered on Pentecost, ibid. 17.

[116] V. Aboth, Sonc. ed., p. 62 notes,

[117] [Kar-nebo, the city of Nebo. Probably Borsippa, v. Funk, Monumenta I p. 299.]

[118] In which flesh of sin-offerings was boiled, and which according to Lev. had to be broken, v. Lev. VI, 21.

[119] Zeb. 96a

[120] Of the’Omer, the two loaves and the showbread.

[121] Broken earthenware, crop, feathers, ashes. Broken earthenware was counted as one and all the other things swallowed up came as under one head, so that if they were all to be placed on one count, there would be one miracle short of the number.

[122] Hag. 26b.

[123] I Sam. XXI, 7

[124] The Cherubim which Solomon made stood on the floor next to the ark, on the right and left, The spread of their wings was twenty cubits, Since the whole room had no more than twenty cubits, the body of the Cherubs, as separate from the wings, was in the room by miraculous provision. The same applies to the ark.

[125] Lev. XXIV, 6.

[126] The older schools refer to a lesser number of elements viz., eight, six, four, three, or even two. Cf. Gen. Rab. X, 1; Pirke R. Eliezer III; Ex. Rab. XIII; Jellinek, B.H. ii, 23-29, Intro. Xlii; also infra, where Tahu and Bohu are the two primal elements whence the other two, darkness and water, emanate. V. further, Slavonic Book of Enoch (24-30).

[127] A.V.’without form, and void’; R. V.,’waste and void’; American Jewish Version,’unformed and void’ (Gen. I, 2).

[128] I.e., night and day comprising together twenty-four hours. (Rashi, Jast.). Goldschmidt trans.’the nature of day etc.’; cf. Ber. 11b.

[129] Gen. I, 1,

[130] Ibid., v. 2

[131] Ibid., v. 2

[132] Ibid:, v. 3

[133] E.V.’spirit’.

[134] Ibid., v. 2.

[135] Ibid.,v. 5.

[136] Ps. XVIII, 12.

[137] Heb.,,unkupn, which Jastrow renders,’smooth (chaotic) stones’. Levy:’stones sunken in the primal mire, chaos’; cf. also Targ. to Job XXVIII, 3; Zeb. 54a, Bez. 24a.

[138] Isa. XXXIV, 11.

[139] The Well of Miriam which followed the Israelites in the Wilderness; v. Num. XXI, .16-18, which some relate to this.

[140] V. Gen. IX, 13f.

[141] I.e., the shape of letters.

[142] Ex. XXXII, 16.

[143] When G-d allowed them to see His glory; v. Ex. XXXIII, 22; I Kings XIX, 9.

[144] Num. XXII, 28.

[145] Ibid. XVI, 30. That these last two should happen when the need arose was decreed at the time of the creation.

[146] The mule is regarded as a hybrid, as stated infra. But according to R. Nehemiah, the first was created directly, and was not the result of cross-breeding.

[147] Which Abraham offered as a substitute for Isaac, Gen. XXII, 13; it was ordained at the Creation that the ram should thus be ready to hand.

[148] A legendary worm used for the building of the Temple. It was laid upon the stones and cut through them, and so obviated the need for iron tools, in conformity with Ex. XX, 22; v. I Kings VI, 7 and Git. 68a.

[149] I learned this from my teacher, His Eminence Hakham Dr. Yoseph ben Haggi.

[150] Ba'al ha'Turim

[151] Read on Shabbat Hazon.

[152] From: PIRQE ABOT (Chapters of the Fathers), Pereq Hei, Mishnah 5:4, By: Hakham Yitschaq ben Moshe Magriso.

[153] According to Rashi

[154] Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, Shemot (Exodus) 30:12

[155] Mizrachi; Sifsei Chachamim

[156] Gur Aryeh

[157] The ten numbers are the foundation of all sums.

[158] Thus, there are really no new numbers beyond ten.

[159] For example 15 = 10 + 10 / 2

[160] For example 17 = 10 + 10 / 2 + 10 / 5

[161] 20 is 10 x 2.

[162] According to Creizenach.

[163] Multiplying ten and adding a part or parts of ten to it. Thus: 65 = 6 x 10 + 10 / 2; 66= 6 x 10 + 10 / 2 + 10 / 10

[164] According to Aristotle, the sub lunar world consists of four elements: earth, water, wind (air), and fire.

[165] The sphere of the moon, the sphere of the sun, the spheres of each of the five planets, and the sphere of the constellations. I.E. omits the diurnal sphere and the sphere of the active intellect because they do not contain any body.

[166] The yod is numerically equivalent to ten.

[167] According to the Pythagoreans, the number ten was sacred. It was symbolized by the dotted triangle, the tatractys, "source and root of everlasting nature." See Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vols. 7 and 8, p. 38.

[168] For it encompasses and gathers everything into one company.

[169] Hence, it has a similar meaning.

[170] From the root yod, dalet, heh.

[171] The plural of todah.

[172] From the sphere of the active intellect. There are ten spheres surrounding the earth, namely, the lunar sphere, the solar sphere, the five spheres of the planets, the sphere of the constellations, the ninth sphere-which moves all of the above-mentioned spheres-and the sphere of the active intellect.

[173] The sphere of the active intellect is known as the kisse ha-kavod, G-d's glorious throne, and is thus holy.

[174] Lit. its counterpart.

[175] They allude to the sphere of the active intellect, which is both the first and the tenth sphere.

[176] Rather than with ten. Lit. There are nine ones.

[177] That is two through nine.

[178] A prime number is a number that can be evenly divided only by itself and by one.

[179] Another word for root. One is the root and square of one and the root and cube of one.

[180] Two.

[181] That is, 1 + 22 = 5

[182] Three.

[183] That is, 1 + 32 = 10

[184] The numbers making up the divine name Yah, spelled yod, heh. Yod = 10, heh = 5.

[185] YHVH comes to 26. For yod = IO, heh = 5, and vav = 6.

[186] The divine name Yah. Yah is spelled yod, heh. Yod is enunciated yod, vav, dalet. Heh is sounded heh, Alef,. Yod, vav, dalet, heh, and Alef = 26. Lit. The same is also the case if we add the sum of the two letters.

[187] The fiftieth year. See Leviticus 25:10-12

[188] Which falls fifty days from the day on which the Omer is brought. See Leviticus 23:15, 17.

[189] One of the ten occasions when G-d came down. They are enumerated by Th.

[190] Thus the moon will be increased sevenfold (that being regarded as the present ratio) and the sun will be seven times that. This greater strength was enjoyed by the sun in the first week of creation, and the Heb. or'olam (E.V.’an everlasting light’) is translated: the ancient light, sc. Of the creation week, i.e. G-d will renew the sun, restoring it to its original state. V. Gen. R. III, 6.

[191] V. Isa. LVIII, 12.

[192] Universal peace, even among wild beasts, will prevail.

[193] In Gen. R. XII, 6, six things are enumerated that will happen in Messianic times, among which are some not enumerated here. It is also surprising that our passage does not include Resurrection and other things promised by the Prophets. The point stressed by the Midrash is that all these things will be renewed in the month on which they departed from Egypt, ha-hodesh ha-seh (E.V.’THIS MONTH’) now being translated’this renewal’, from hadash’new’.

[194] Immediately he saw light after the termination of the Sabbath he recited the appropriate blessing. Later, when spices were brought to him, he recited a further blessing over them. Thus the blessings were’scattered’.

[195] He recited both blessings together over a cup of wine, as is the present practice.

[196] I.e., he recited the blessings a second time on their behalf.

[197] The Well of Miriam which followed the Israelites in the Wilderness; v. Num. XXI, .16-18, which some relate to this.

[198] V. Gen. 9:13ff.

[199] I.e., the shape of letters.

[200] Ex. XXXII, 16.

[201] When G-d allowed them to see His glory; v. Ex. XXXIII, 22; I Kings 19:9.

[202] Num. 22:28.

[203] Ibid. 16:30. That these last two should happen when the need arose was decreed at the time of the creation.

[204] The mule is regarded as a hybrid, as stated infra. But according to R. Nehemiah, the first was created directly, and was not the result of cross-breeding.

[205] Which Avraham offered as a substitute for Isaac, Gen. 22:13; it was ordained at the Creation that the ram should thus be ready to hand.

[206] A legendary worm used for the building of the Temple. It was laid upon the stones and cut through them, and so obviated the need for iron tools, in conformity with Ex. 20:22; v. I Kings 6:7 and Git. 68a.

[207] Or: travels about and visits the world. V. Gen. R. XXV, 3.

[208] Tanchuma, Ki Tissa, 9; Bamidbar Rabbah 2, 11; Pesikta de Rav Kahana, Parshat Shekalim.