Notes On Revelation 5:1- 5:14

By Hakham Dr. Yosef ben Haggai, Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David,

Paqid Adon Micah ben Hillel, Paqid Adon Poriel ben Avraham, Adon Ezra ben Avraham

 


The throne vision that started in the previous chapter (chapter 4) with the focus now on the delegation of authority to judge rule humanity from HaShem to His Mashiach. This chapter of the Book of Revelation appears to have a lot of shared similarities with the story of Joseph. Perhaps the best title we can give to this chapter is “HaShem delegating some of His authority to His Mashiach.” A key passage to have in memory as we read and examine these fourteen verses of chapter five of Revelation is Genesis 41:38-44, where we read:

 

38. And Pharaoh said to his servants, Can we find any man like this, in whom the spirit of HaShem is? 39. And Pharaoh said to Joseph, Since HaShem has shown you all this, no one is as discreet and wise as you. 40. You will be over my house, and all my people will kiss the hand at your word. Only in the throne will I be greater than you. 41. And Pharaoh said to Joseph, See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt. 42. And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand. And he dressed him with fine linen robes, and put a gold chain around his neck. 43. And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had, and they cried before him, Bow the knee! And he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt. 44. And Pharaoh said to Joseph, I am Pharaoh, and without a word from you, no man will lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.

 

As we can be seen in this passage, whilst Pharaoh has delegated a great amount of authority and even made the people of Egypt to bend the knee before Joseph, this in no way means that Pharaoh and his office became obsolete or a mere rubber stamp! The key phrase in this passage is found in v.40 – “You will be over my house, and all my people will kiss the hand at your word. Only in the throne will I be greater than you.” In this chapter we will find a similar activity taking place at a greater scale and with different words, yet the central idea find it precedent in the above passage of Genesis.

 

With this thought in mind let us proceed to the analysis of the text for this chapter verse by verse, line upon line.

 

EXEGESIS OF THE TEXT

 

Nomenclature:

 

(KJV +) = King James Version of the Holy Bible

(1850 Revision) with embedded Strong’s Numbers

 

(YLT) = Young’s Literal Translation of the Holy Bible

(by J. N. Young, 1862, 1898)

 

(ALT) = Analytical-Literal Translation of the Nazarean Codicil of the Holy Bible

(© 1999-2001 by Garry F. Zeolla of Darkness to Light Ministry – ( www.dtl.org )

 

Revelation 5:1

 

(KJV+) And2532 I saw1492 in1909 the3588 right hand1188 of him that sat2521 on1909 the3588 throne2362 a book975 written1125 within2081 and2532 on the backside,3693 sealed2696 with seven2033 seals.4973

 

(YLT) And I saw upon the right hand of Him who is sitting upon the throne a scroll, written within and on the back, sealed with seven seals;

 

(ALT) And I saw in the right hand of the One sitting on the throne a scroll having been written inside and outside, having been sealed with seven seals.

 

And I saw upon the right hand of Him who is sitting upon the throne

 

The right hand, in the Scriptures is regarded as the chief place of honour, strength and power.[1]

 

As to the One sitting on the throne, we have earlier commented: There is a perfect correspondence here to what David says in Psalm 47:8-10 -

 

8. For HaShem is the King of all the earth; sing praises in a skilful song. 9. HaShem reigns over the nations; HaShem sits upon His holy throne. 10. The princes of the peoples are gathered together, the people of the G-d of Abraham; for unto HaShem belong the shields of the earth; He is greatly exalted.”

 

The “throne” is therefore explained by the Psalmist as a symbol of HaShem’s absolute sovereignty, particularly, in this case, with regards to the nations / Gentiles.

 

A scroll having been written inside and outside

 

Mounce[2] identifies this “book” as “containing the full account of HaShem in His sovereign will has determined as the destiny of the world.” He also states that others have identified this “book” as: (1) the Lamb’s Book of Life – Rev. 3:5; 13:8; 17:8; 20:12, 15; 21:27; (2) the Tanach[3]; (3) a testament which insures inheritance for the saints; and (4) a doubly inscribed contract deed.

 

Beale and Carson[4] commenting on this verse, state: “Most interpreters have rightly identified the phrase of 5:1b, ‘a scroll / book written on the front and back,’ as evoking the image of Ezekiel 2:9b-10. John’s scroll, like Ezekiel’s will contain “lamentations, mourning, and woe” (Ezekiel 2:10). The biblion (“book”) is further described by the phrase ‘having been sealed with seven seals,’ which appears to be a merging of Daniel 12:1, 4, 9 with Isaiah 29:11.”

 

Ladd[5] on the other hand, states:

 

There are several interpretations of the scroll itself. Many interpreters appeal to the fact that in the Roman world seven seals was the usual way of attesting the validity of a last will and testament. A will was witnessed by seven witnesses and seven seals were attached to the seven threads that secured the testament. In life, the execution of a will assumed the death of the testator; and while HaShem does not die, early Christian faith made much of the idea of the inheritance which believers enjoyed and which was grounded on the death of HaShem's son (Heb. 9:151f.). Viewed in this way, the scroll is the symbol of the promise of the Kingdom of HaShem which HaShem's people are to inherit. This irrevocable disposition of HaShem occurred long ago, has been documented and sealed, but not yet executed (I Pet. 1:4). The contents of this inheritance have been proclaimed through the prophets, through Yeshua and the Holy Spirit in the early church, and are to a certain extent known. However, the full realization of this inheritance is future, when the returning Mashiach opens the testament and executes it.

 

This view is attractive, but it faces a major difficulty; namely, that the seals as well as the trumpets do not have to do with the Christians' inheritance but with the plagues of judgment which HaShem will pour out upon a rebellious civilization. An adequate interpretation of the scroll must make room for the inclusion of HaShem's judgmental acts as well as the positive aspect of the inheritance bestowed upon the saints.

 

A second view identifies the scroll as the Lamb's book of life which appears several times in the Revelation (3:5; 13:8; 17:8; 20:12, 15; 21:27). The fullness of the writing contained in the book points to the multitude of names included in it (Rev. 7:9). The breaking of the seals indicates the disclosure of the names of the redeemed. This view is difficult, for it does not correspond with the events which accompany the breaking of the seals, and there seems to be no reason in the context for introducing the book of life at this place.

 

A third view which goes back to ancient times is that the scroll is the Tanach viewed as fulfilled in the Nazarean Codicil. Yeshua went into the synagogue at Nazareth and after reading from the scroll of Isaiah, he announced, "Today this scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing" (Luke 4:21). Thus Mashiach is the one who is able to bring the entire volume of the Tanach’s prophetic hope to its divinely ordained fulfilment.

 

The clue to the meaning of the book is found in the experience of Ezekiel, who in preparation for his prophetic ministry to Israel was given a written scroll, which, like John's scroll, was full of writing on both sides. Ezekiel's scroll contained "words of lament and mourning and woe" (Ezek. 2:10). He was then told to take the scroll and eat it, and thus lie would be able to prophesy to Israel (Ezek. 2:1-10).

 

Mezuzah on Jaffa GateThe easiest identification of John's scroll is that it contains the prophecy of the end events, including both the salvation of HaShem's people and the judgment of the wicked. It is HaShem's redemptive plan for the denouement of human history, the overthrow of evil, and the gathering of a redeemed people to enjoy the blessings of HaShem's rule. Although John, surprisingly, does not describe the actual opening of the scroll, the breaking of the sixth seal brings us to the end of the world, the last day; and in view of the fact that the opening of the seventh seal is accompanied by no specific event like the first six, we may conclude that the contents of the scroll consist of the material in Revelation 7:1 - 22:21. The events accompanying the breaking of the seals are not the end itself, but the events leading up to the end, while the contents of the scroll are that complex of events, both redemptive and judicial, which will accompany the end of this world and the introduction of the world to come.

 

All of the above speculations contain a number of errors as well as half truths. The reason for this is that those proposing these views have failed to look in-depth into Hakham Yochanan’s (Apostle John’s) rich and wonderful Jewish heritage to find adequate answers for the correct identification of this “book/scroll.” The question that these authors have failed to ask is: What possible kind of scroll do the Jewish people know which is written on both sides of it? The answer: The mezuzah scroll.

 

A mezuzah (Hebrew: מזוזה "doorpost") (plural: mezuzot (מזוזות)) is a piece of parchment (usually contained in a decorative case) inscribed with specified Hebrew verses from the Torah (Deuteronomy 6:4-9 and 11:13-21). These verses comprise the Jewish prayer "Shema Yisrael," and begins with the phrase "Hear, O Israel, HaShem your G-d, HaShem is One." The following graphic depicts the mezuzah scroll:

 

 

A mezuzah is affixed to the right-hand side (as you enter) of the doorpost of Jewish homes to fulfil the mitzva[6] to inscribe the words of the Shema "on the doorposts of your house" (Deuteronomy 6:9). Many families place a mezuzah on the front door only, but observant Jews fix one on every doorway in the home apart from bathrooms, and closets too small to qualify as rooms. The parchment is prepared by a qualified scribe (a "sofer stam") who has undergone many years of meticulous training, and the verses are written in indelible black ink with a special quill pen. The parchment is then rolled up and placed inside the case.[7]

 

It is customary to write two inscriptions on the back of the parchment: the Hebrew word שדי (Shaddai), and the phrase "כוזו במוכסז כוזו". The mezuzah is also checked twice every seven years to make sure the scroll has not decayed and become un-kosher.

 

Shaddai, one of the biblical names of HaShem, also serves here as an acronym for "Shomer Delatot Yisrael" ("guardian of the doorways of Israel"). Many mezuzah cases are also marked with the Hebrew letter ש (Shin), for "Shaddai". Our sages have stated[8], at the remez level of hermeneutics, that the term “Shaddai” is a compound word composed of the relative “She” meaning “Who” and the word “Day” meaning “enough.” Thus, “She-Day” means “the One Who is self-sufficient.”

 

According to the TWOT[9] the translation “G-d Almighty” for the Hebrew “El Shaddai” goes as far back as the Septuagint which translates this Hebrew name for HaShem, as “Pantokrator” (“all-powerful”), and this in turn is reflected in the Vulgate which translates as “Omnipotens.” Nevertheless, these same authors concede that there is another possible translation for this Hebrew term. The term “Shaddai” is derived from the root verb “Shadad” meaning “to destroy,” and thus Shaddai means “my destroyer.”[10] Therefore, HaShem Who is Self-Sufficient (Omnipotent) can become “HaShem my Destroyer” should I choose to become unfaithful to Him. There is no contradiction, both translations are indeed complementary to each other.

 

"כוזו במוכסז כוזו" is a Caesar cipher, a one letter shift, of the third, fourth, and fifth words of the Shema, "Adonai, Eloheinu, Adonai", "HaShem, our G-d, HaShem"; it is written on the back of the mezuzah, opposite the corresponding words on the front. This inscription, Kabbalistic in origin, has appeared on mezuzot since at least the 11th century.[11]

 

Now that we have identified this “scroll” of Rev. 5:1 as the scroll of parchment written on both sides inside our mezuzah cases on the doorposts of our homes, the question arises as to how this scroll is one as Ezekiel states, containing “lamentations, mourning, and woe” (Ezekiel 2:10)? To answer this question, we need first to understand the symbolic meaning of the mezuzah.

 

As mentioned above the mezuzah scroll contains two passages of Scripture: (1) Deuteronomy 6:4-9 and (2) Deuteronomy 11:13-21. Now, Deuteronomy 6:3 ends the parasha petuha with the Hebrew symbol/letter “פ." The next parasha petuha is to be found in at the end of Deuteronomy 7:11. This means that the discourse that starts in Deuteronomy 6:4 finishes at 7:11, and is divided into the following Setumot (sections) marked by the Hebrew symbol/letter “ס at: Deut. 6:9; 6:15; 6:19; and 6:25. Therefore, the Setuma of Deut. 6:4-9 is acting as a pars-pro-toto for the discourse starting at Deut 6:4 and concluding at 7:11. As for Deut. 11:13-21, the last parasha petuha concluded at Deut. 10:11, and therefore our discourse starts in Deut. 10:12 and concluding at 13:1 where again we meet the Hebrew symbol/letter פ." This discourse from Deut. 10:12 – 13:1 is subdivided into the following sections marked with the Hebrew letter/symbol ס” at: 11:9; 11:12; 11:21; 11:25; 11:28; 12:19; and 12:28. Thus, the section of Deut. 11:13-21 is a pars pro toto of the discourse starting at Deut. 10:12 and concluding at 13:1. And further, we may also state that the these two discourses of Deut. 6:4 – 7:11 and Deut. 10:12 – 13:1 are also a pars pro toto of the whole of the Torah Scroll.[12] Since it would be awkward to place a whole scroll of the Torah at the door posts, two sections of the Torah mentioning the command to write “these words on your door posts” are placed instead inside the mezuzah cases. But we must nevertheless understand that they are symbolic for the whole Torah Scroll!

 

Now, returning back to our question, how can the mezuzah scroll be one as Ezekiel states, containing “lamentations, mourning, and woe” (Ezekiel 2:10)? The answer to this question is obvious! If the mezuzah scroll is a symbol of the whole Torah scroll, there are plenty of verses in the first five books of the Bible that spell quite clearly “lamentations, mourning and woe” to those that ignore HaShem and are wilfully disobedient, both Jew and Gentile alike.

 

Concerning this statement in Ezekiel 2:10, our Sages have stated:[13]

 

“Said R. Hisda, “Expounded Mari bar Mar, ‘What is the meaning of the verse of Scripture, “I have seen an end to every purpose, but your commandment is exceedingly broad” (Psa. 119:96)? David said this but didn’t spell it out. Job. said it but didn’t spell it out. Ezekiel said it but didn’t spell it out. Until Zechariah b. Iddo came along and spelled it out. ‘David said this but didn’t spell it out: “I have seen an end to every purpose, but your commandment is exceedingly broad” (Psa. 119:96). ‘Job. said it but didn’t spell it out: “The measure thereof is longer than the earth and broader than the sea” (Job. 11: 9). ‘Ezekiel said it but didn’t spell it out: “And he spread it before me and it was written within and without and there was written therein lamentations, and meditation of joy and woe” (Ezekiel 2:10). “Lamentation” speaks of retribution of the just in this world, in line with the verse, “This is the lamentation wherewith they will lament” (Ezekiel 32:16). “Meditation of joy” refers to the reward of the righteous in the world to come, in line with the verse, “With the joy of solemn sound upon the harp” (Psa. 92: 4). “And woe” speaks of the retribution of the wicked / lawless in the world to come, in line with the verse, “Calamity will come upon calamity” (Ezekiel 7:26).”

 

Another important fact to have in mind is that we Jews believe that all Scriptures are elucidations and further explanations of the first five Books of the Torah. Thus, the popular aphorism within Judaism, that “if it is not in the Torah it is not in the world.” The Prophets Ezekiel, Daniel, Isaiah, and Hakham Yochanan received revelations that elucidated some sections of the Torah. For, in the Torah is contained in embryonic form all future revelations included what we read the Book of Revelation. Not to mention also, that another summary of the whole Torah, i.e. the two Tablets containing the Ten Words (Commandments) were written from both sides (Exodus 32:15).

 

The mezuzah scroll symbolic of the whole Torah Scroll is said to rest “upon the right hand of Him who is sitting upon the throne.” That is, the whole of human history, past, present and future, is to be found in the Torah, and ultimately rests in the hand of HaShem, most blessed be He! This vision therefore teaches a most important lesson – that HaShem is sovereign over all of His creation and human history, which is in opposition to the secular or atheistic view of human history. The idea behind this vision is also one in which human history has a divine ordained goal and inseparable from the redemptive Word of HaShem.[14]

 

Abraham ibn Ezra, in his treatise on the philosophy of mitzvot Sefer Yesod Morah Ve-Sod Ha-Torah, gives a similar rationale for the precept of mezuzah as a reminder to observe all religious precepts. He writes:

 

The reason Scripture gives for tzitzith is, ‘you may remember and do all My commandments[15] when you constantly look upon the tzitzith[16]. The same applies to “And thou shalt bind them (tefillin)... and thou shalt write them (mezuzah) [on the doorposts]”.[17]

 

Thus, according to ibn Ezra, a mezuzah (just like the tzitzith and tefillin) serves as a reminder to fulfill all commandments. Thus we see that the Ibn Ezra agrees that the mezuzah is a pars pro toto[18], an allusion, for the whole Torah.

 

Sealed with seven seals

 

As noted above, Christian commentators find here an allusion to the Roman practice of sealing with seven seals a last will and testament, and this before seven witnesses. To this we reply that whilst Hakham Yochanan probably was conversant with this Roman practice, such was not reflected in his Jewish upbringing, nor in his native Jewish culture, nor in Jewish practice. We also need to understand here, something which these commentators fail to understand, that we Jews are forbidden to follow after the customs and practices of the Gentiles, as it is stated: “Ye shall not do so unto HaShem your G-d” (Deut. 12:4), and meaning that one is not to imitate the heathen in their customs.

 

Therefore, what is needed is an explanation that can make perfect sense to a Jew. Here I would suggest for consistency sake, that the seven seals correspond to the seven-fold spirit of HaShem mentioned in Isaiah 11:1ff., which was to tabernacle fully in the Mashiach in a way that it has never tabernacled in any other human being. The passage declares:

 

1. And there will come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch will grow forth out of his roots. 2. And the spirit of HaShem will rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of HaShem. 3. And his delight will be in the reverential fear of HaShem; and he will not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither decide after the hearing of his ears; 4. But with righteousness / generosity will he judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the land; and he will smite the land with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips will he slay the wicked / lawless. 5. And righteousness / generosity will be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.

 

We have already illustrated in Rev. 4:5 this seven-fold spirit of HaShem upon the menorah (candelabra) as follows:


 

The Menorah

 

Spirit of

Counsel

Spirit of

Understanding

Spirit of Wisdom

Spirit of Service

Spirit of

Fear of the LORD

Spirit of

Knowledge

Spirit of

Might

The precept of Torah study.

 

 

 

+419

Mezuzah

The precept of love for HaShem.

 

 

 

+418

Mezuzah

The precept of the oneness of HaShem.

 

 

+417

Mezuzah

The precept of the mezuzah on the doorpost.

 

 

+423

Mezuzah

The precept of the Tefillin of the head.

 

 

+422

Mezuzah

The precept of the Tefillin of the hand.

 

 

+421

Mezuzah

The mitzva of reciting the Shema every morning and evening.

+420

mezuzah

Seal 3

Seal 2

Seal 1

Seal 7

Seal 6

Seal 5

Seal 4

Idolatry

 

 

Noachide

Law

Blasphemy

 

 

Noachide

Law

Courts

 

 

Noachide

Law

Flesh of a Living animal

Noachide

Law

Robbery

 

 

Noachide

Law

Bloodshed

 

 

Noachide

Law

Adultery

 

 

Noachide

Law

 


The seals in revelation 5:1 function like “seven locks” which can only be opened by a person having seven keys, one to each lock. The only person according to the Tanach who was invested with these seven keys, i.e. the seven-fold spirit of HaShem, was / is the Mashiach as per the text of Isaiah 11:2 – “And the spirit of HaShem will rest upon him (i.e. the Mashiach), the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of HaShem.”

 

Surely, all ministers of HaShem have a measure of this seven-fold spirit of HaShem, but not the complete measure as the Mashiach has. Now notice how after explaining that the seven-fold spirit of HaShem will tabernacle fully in the Mashiach, Isaiah goes on in the next verse (verse 3ff.) to connect this seven-fold spirit with the “judgement” activity. And as we see further in Revelation chapters six and following every time a seal is broken a judgement issues forth upon the Gentiles.

 

Thus, the seven-fold spirit of HaShem is like a two edged knife, on the one hand it serves “for the purpose of the equipping of the holy ones for [the] work of service, for [the] building up [fig., edifying] of the body of Mashiach, until we all arrive [fig., attain] to the unity of the faith and of the full [or, true] knowledge of the son of HaShem, to a perfect [or, mature] man, to [the] measure [fig., extent] of [the] maturity of the fullness of Mashiach” (Ephesians 4:12-13); and on the other hand it serves for the purpose of judgement (Isaiah 11:3-4).

 

The seven seals, therefore are not there to keep the scroll closed, but rather to prevent the judgment upon the nations to take place until he who is fully endowed with the seven-fold spirit of HaShem is given authority to release these judgments one at a time.

 

Another perspective:

 

The first parsha of the mezuzah scroll, Devarim 6:4-9, contains seven specific mitzvot, according to Maimonides[19].

 

  1. The precept of the oneness of HaShem. (+417 Devarim 6:4)

 

  1. The precept of love for HaShem. (+418 Devarim 6:5)

 

 

  1. The precept of Torah study. (+419 Devarim 6:7)

 

  1. The mitzva of reciting the Shema every morning and evening. (+420 Devarim 6:4,7)

 

  1. The precept of the tefillin of the hand. (+421 Devarim 6:8)

 

  1. The precept of the tefillin of the head. (+422 Devarim 6:8)

 

  1. The precept of the mezuzah on the doorpost. (+423 Devarim 6:9)

 

The second parsha, Devarim 11:13-21, does not contain any mitzvot, according to Maimonides.[20]

 

The second parsha, of the mezuzah, teaches the principle of a divine expense account. The mezuzah is a reminder in times of prosperity that our abundance is an expense account which is dependent upon our observance of the Torah and the teaching of the Torah to the world. In times of deprivation, our expense account misfortunes come as a punishment for our sins, our failure to deliver the goods. More importantly, the performance of the mitzvot is to be done to love, or connect, with HaShem. We do not serve for a reward. That comes in the olam haba. The “rewards” mentioned are merely the expense account whereby we are enabled to continue to live easily so that we will have time to serve HaShem and to connect with Him.

 

Why did HaShem command us regarding the mezuzah? The mezuzah is a portion of Holy Torah, inscribed in the same manner and script as a Torah. The mezuzah contains the commands that HaShem has given Israel to remind them to remember, and to perform, all the commands of the Torah. The mezuzah is a par pro toto of the entire Torah. Because it is impossible to write an entire Torah scroll on the doorposts of our homes, HaShem gave us a reminder, the mezuzah. Thus the mezuzah sums up the Torah as a reminder. One who is diligent to remember and perform the commands of HaShem, will have a mezuzah to form a reminder to obey the mitzvot of the Torah. This reminder will greet them every time they enter a room of their house.

 

These seven mitzvot are the seven seals that constitute our Torah obligations as a summary of the entire Torah. Further, they constitute our protection from the wrath of HaShem. This is the scroll written on the inside and out, which will be used to judge Israel and the world.

 

A question: Do the judgments apply to the Jew or the Gentile? In this chapter we have the judgments affecting the earth. This suggests that both the Jew and the Gentile will be affected by the judgments. If this is true, then how does the mezuzah and its seven commands affect the Gentile who is not obligated to obey the whole Torah? So lets take a shot at trying to explain how the mezuzah relates to the Gentile.

 

According to Ashkenaz halacha[21], when a Jew and a Gentile share a house, each having his own designated room or area, then a mezuzah is not required on the common doorway. However, halacha does permit the shared house to have a mezuzah on the common doorway. Thus we learn that a Gentile may have mezuzot on his doorposts, but, he is not required to have them.

 

According to Sephardi halacha[22], the Rashba teaches that a common doorway is required to have a mezuzah.

 

There is a well known passage in the Jerusalem Talmud which illustrates that even the Gentile can merit protection through the mezuzah.

 

Talmud Yerushalmi, Peah 1:1 The Parthian king, Artiban, once sent a priceless jewel to Rabbi Judah the Prince (135 c.e. - 220 c.e.), who was the compiler of the Mishna and one of the wealthiest Jews. The king made it obvious that he expected something of equal value in return. The Rabbi's return gift to the king was a Mezuzah. The king's reply was: "I sent you something priceless and you sent me something that can be bought for a paltry sum!?" The Rabbi answered: "You sent me something that I must hire a guard to watch and I sent you something that will watch over you!" After a while, the king's daughter fell ill (in the words of the Talmud she was possessed by a demon), and all of the doctors could not cure her. Rebbe instructed him to place the mezuzah on her door, and she recovered.

 

Additionally, the Sanhedrin's special beit din for Bnei Noach halacha has issued a halachic ruling that Noachides can hang mezuzot on their doorways.

 

This suggests that the seven Noachide laws are the seven laws that are alluded to by the seven commands of the Torah, as we saw in the previous chart.

 

Revelation 5:2

 

(KJV+) And2532 I saw1492 a strong2478 angel32 proclaiming2784 with a loud3173 voice,5456 Who5101 is2076 worthy514 to open455 the3588 book,975 and2532 to loose3089 the3588 seals4973 thereof?848

 

(YLT) and I saw a strong messenger crying with a great voice, `Who is worthy to open the scroll and to loose the seals of it?'

 

(ALT) And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, "Who is worthy to open the scroll and to break its seals?"

 

And I saw a strong angel

 

The Greek word for strong is ischuros and meaning: forcible (literally or figuratively), mighty, powerful, strong (man), or valiant. This seems to point out that an important angel has been selected for this pronouncement. J. B. Smith[23] comments on this verse:

 

“The vision opens with three notes of emphasis: a strong angel, only twice more is reference made to a strong angel in the book, viz., 10:1 and 18:21 (Greek). The angel proclaims, not merely says. The word signifies to announce as a herald. With a loud voice denotes urgency and great concern ... Who is the strong angel making the challenge? The answer is doubtless, Gabriel, the one who ordered the closing and sealing of the book to Daniel (Daniel 8:16 and 12:4-13).”

 

Adam Clarke[24] in his commentary on Daniel 12:6, states: “This is Gabriel in a human form. Thus he is represented in Daniel 10:5.”

 

Since the seals to be opened will issue in judgments to the Gentiles, we agree with these authors, that the “strong angel” mentioned here is none other than Gabriel who describes himself in the words, “I am Gabriel, who stand in the presence of HaShem” (I Luke 1:19). Further, the phrase “strong angel” indicates that it is Gabriel because his name signifies the “strong One” or “mighty One” of HaShem.

 

Proclaiming with a loud voice

 

The Greek has: “Megas Foni” and meaning literally “a loud sound.” The modern English word megaphone is a transliteration of the combination of these two Greek words. Mounce[25] interprets this to mean: “A great voice is needed because the challenge is set out to the far reaches of creation.”

 

`Who is worthy to open the scroll and to loose the seals of it?'

 

Barnes[26] comments on this phrase:

 

“That is, who is “worthy” in the sense of having a rank so exalted, and attributes so comprehensive, as to authorize and enable him to do it. In other words, who has the requisite endowments of all kinds to enable him to do it?”

 

The worthiness here is not alluding to personal merit but to endowment and / or delegated authority.

 

This entire verse is reminiscent of a prophecy that Jews prophesy every Shabbat morning services in the esnoga when the Torah scroll is read. Before the Torah scroll is opened, the Chazzan designates a member to carry the Torah scroll. This person should be able to carry the weight of the Torah and its dressings around the esnoga displaying its splendor and then bring it to the teba where it is opened.

 

To a degree, it is as if the Ish designated to carry the Torah is saying, “Who is worthy of opening the Torah? And as I am carrying it and showing you its brilliance, who can actually peer into it?”

 

In the esnoga, there is one person who opens the Torah scroll. This person is usually the Hakham, Chazzan, or a person distinguished with very much Torah knowledge and deeds. Once the Torah scroll is opened, there are seven men who recite the blessing over the Torah and read the proper verses.

 

As it is in heaven, so it is on earth.

 

Revelation 5:3

 

(KJV+) And2532 no man3762 in1722 heaven,3772 nor3761 in1909 earth,1093 neither3761 under5270 the3588 earth,1093 was able1410 to open455 the3588 book,975 neither3761 to look991 thereon.846

 

(YLT) and no one was able in the heaven, nor upon the earth, nor under the earth, to open the scroll, nor to behold it.

 

(ALT) And no one in the heaven {above} nor on the earth, nor under the earth was being able to open the scroll, nor to be looking at it.

 

And no one was able

 

The question in the previous verse was not about who had the greater morality, or the greatest merits, but to who has been given the power or authority to open the seals of this scroll, that is to whom were the keys given to unlock these seven seals.

 

We need further to state that this “no one” is not absolute for HaShem the Almighty needs to be excepted, as well as to whom HaShem in His pleasure chooses to delegate such an exalted function.

 

in the heaven, nor upon the earth, nor under the earth,

 

There seems here to be an echo of Exodus 20:4 – “You will not make unto yourself a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of anything that is in heaven above, or that is upon the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;” Whilst the verbal construction is similar, the idea here is about the universality of the proclamation rather than a warning against the sin of idolatry.

 

To open the scroll, nor to behold it.

 

That is, to loose the seals, and to “see in it” (i.e. by “seeing” meaning to fully understand what is written in it together with its full implications). As we found in Daniel 12:1-3, the text there implies a future unsealing of the book in a latter-day period. Here we have another important indication that the prophecies contained in the book of Revelation are a fulfilment of the latter day prophecies of what already had been stated in the Torah and further elucidated by the Prophets Isaiah, Daniel, and Ezekiel.

 

The function that here is alluded to is one of bringing the history of humankind to its ultimate fulfilment. Or, put in other words, the function of bringing all what is prophesied in the Scriptures, and more particularly in the Torah to its ultimate fulfilment. Or, even better put, how the Word of HaShem is brought to its logical fulfilment. We must remember that Hakham Yochanan[27] had already stated in John 1:1 that the Mashiach is the written and oral Word of HaShem, i.e. the Torah. Therefore, what we are about to read in verse five, means that this Living written and oral Torah is to be given delegated authority by HaShem to bring itself to complete fulfilment.

 

Revelation 5:4

 

(KJV+) And2532 I1473 wept2799 much,4183 because3754 no man3762 was found2147 worthy514 to open455 and2532 to read314 the3588 book,975 neither3777 to look991 thereon.846

 

(YLT) And I was weeping much, because no one was found worthy to open and to read the scroll, nor to behold it,

 

(ALT) And _I_ began weeping greatly, because no one was found worthy to open the scroll, nor to be looking at it.

 

Some seem to indicate that Yochanan was weeping because neither he, nor any Torah Scholar had been found worthy (i.e. good enough) to be granted this exalted function. This is a total misunderstanding of the text! Yochanan is weeping because he had taken the “no one” at its literal face value. For if “no one” could be found to bring history to its ultimate conclusion, that would mean that the righteous / generous ones would never be able to find justice for the gross crimes perpetrated against them.

 

We find justification for this interpretation further in Rev. 6:9-10 where the “weeping greatly” of Yochanan is similar to the complaint of the martyrs:

 

9. And when he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those slain because of the Word of HaShem, and because of the testimony that they held, 10. and they were crying with a great voice, saying, `Till when, O Master, the Holy and the True, do You not judge and take vengeance of our blood from those dwelling upon the earth?'

 

Similarly, Mashiach King David weeps and states (Psalm 94:1-15):

 

1. O LORD, HaShem of vengeance; O HaShem of vengeance, shine forth! 2. Lift up Yourself, O Judge of the earth; give a just recompense on the proud. 3. Until when will the wicked / lawless, HaShem, until when will the wicked / lawless exult? 4. They gush, they speak impudent things; all the workers of evil / lawlessness speak proudly. 5. HaShem, they crush Your people and afflict Your inheritance. 6. They kill the widow and the stranger, and murder the orphan. 7. Yet they say, HaShem will not see, nor will the G-d of Jacob observe. 8. Understand you beastly ones among the people; yea, you fools, when will you be wise? 9. He who planted the ear, will He not hear? He who formed the eye, will He not see? 10. He who chastises the Gentiles, will He not punish, He who teaches man knowledge? 11. HaShem knows the thoughts of man, that they are a mist. 12. Fortunate is the man You chasten, HaShem, You teach him out of Your Law; 13. to give him rest from troubled days, until the pit is dug for the wicked / lawless. 14. For HaShem will not leave His people; nor will He forsake His inheritance. 15. For judgment will turn to righteousness / generosity; and all the upright in heart will follow after it.

 

And what is the cry and weeping of the 6,000,000 Jews that perished recently in the Holocaust and the grieving and ruined millions of family members left behind? Would not their cry and weeping be as well: “Till when, O Master, the Holy and the True, do You not judge and take vengeance of our blood from those dwelling upon the earth?”

 

Therefore, the “great weeping” of Yochanan is because “no one was found worthy to open the scroll, nor to be seeing in it.” That is, if no one can be found to bring to justice those that murder our people, and the many holy servants of HaShem, with apparent impunity, then what is the meaning of this religious service in the heavens, and for that matter or service to HaShem on earth? This, and no other is the source and reason of Hakham Yochanan’s “great weeping.”

 

Mounce[28] therefore, correctly states:

 

“It appears that the promise of 4:1 (“Come up hither, and I will show you the things which must come to pass hereafter”) is about to be thwarted. Unless the seals are broken and the scroll of destiny unrolled, HaShem’s plan for the universe will be frustrated. Hence the Seer breaks out in unrestrained weeping. All suggestions that John wept out of disappointment for his own sake are unworthy of the Seer. He wept at the prospect of an indefinite postponement of HaShem’s final and decisive action.”

 

Another way of interpreting this passage is that Hakham Yochanan knows that he is no longer only Hakham Yochanan but a member of the living Mashiach, and his weeping can be seen as his erroneous discernment that the “body of Mashiach was not yet complete” (that is, the complete number of persons that belong to Israel, for Israel is the body of King Mashiach), as Hakham Shaul states (in Romans 11:25-26):

 

25. For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, lest you should be wise your own conceits; that blindness in part has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has comes in (to form part of the Commonwealth of Israel together with the Jewish people). 26. And so all Israel (the whole Commonwealth of Israel) will be saved; as it is written (Isaiah 59:20), "And a redeemer will come to Zion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, says the LORD.”

 

The Targum of Isaiah has: “And he will come to Zion as Redeemer. To return the rebels of the house of Jacob to the Law, says HaShem.”

 

Therefore, to make it more clear, and using the contextual vocabulary of these verses, Mashiach is not “WORTHY” until that time as his body is complete, i.e. “until the full number of the Gentiles has come in to form part of the Commonwealth of Israel.” Thus, until the Commonwealth of Israel be complete and observing the Law, Mashiach has not fully accomplished his task, and therefore has not become yet fully worthy to open the seals.

 

As an aside note, we must add concerning the text of the Targum of Isaiah at 59:20, that no one can be a member of the Commonwealth of Israel until he / she sees fit as a matter of obligation and gratitude to observe the Law as Jews do, the ten Gentilized tribes need to recognize that Judah (i.e. the Jews) are the lawgivers to the rest of the Tribes of the Commonwealth of Israel as it is written:

 

“The sceptre turns not aside from Judah, And a lawgiver from between his feet, Till his seed come; And his is the obedience of the Gentiles.” (Gen. 49:10 YLT)

 

If any Gentile or member of the lost tribes desires to be part of the body of Mashiach, or a member of the Commonwealth of Israel, they have no right to interpret how the laws are to be observed since the text of Genesis 49:10 makes it clear that until Mashiach comes the only people authorized to interpret the Law and legislate as to how the commandments must be kept are authorized members of the tribe of Judah, “And a lawgiver from between his feet.”

 

Revelation 5:5

 

(KJV+) And2532 one1520 of1537 the3588 elders4245 saith3004 unto me,3427 Weep2799 not:3361 behold,2400 the3588 Lion3023, (5607) of1537 the3588 tribe5443 of Judah,2455 the3588 Root4491 of David,1138 hath prevailed3528 to open455 the3588 book,975 and2532 to loose3089 the3588 seven2033 seals4973 thereof.848

 

(YLT) and one of the elders saith to me, `Weep not; lo, overcome did the Lion, who is of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, to open the scroll, and to loose the seven seals of it;

 

(ALT) And one of the elders says to me, "Stop weeping! Listen! The Lion from the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, overcame to open the scroll and its seven seals.

 

There is a problem in the Greek rendering of this verse. The Crawford and Peshitto rendition of the book of Revelation has at Rev. 5:2, 5:5 and at 15:1 the same Aramaic word: ZEKA which either means to conquer or worthy depending on the context. Now, the rendition of the Greek text in Revelation 5:5 has at least two problems. First, it makes no sense when viewed in context. In Revelation 5:2 Hakham Yochanan is left wondering as to who is worthy to open the seals. Then three verses later (5:5), he is consoled by the fact that the Lion of Yehudah has conquered. But this, was not his original question!

 

Second, Hakham Yochanan was perfectly familiar with the prophecy regarding Yehudah:

 

Bereshit (Genesis) 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Yehudah, nor the lawmaker from between his feet, until Shiloh come, and the obedience of the Gentiles to him.

 

Thus, the answer given by the Greek text is no new news to him!

 

It appears therefore that the Greek text adopted the wrong meaning of the Aramaic ZEKA at 5:5 and 15:1, where it should read worthy as at 5:1. The text then should read:

 

“And one of the elders says to me, "Stop weeping! See! The Lion from the tribe of Yehudah, the Root of David, has been found worthy to open the scroll and its seven seals.”

 

Now, “Lion of the tribe of Judah” comes from Genesis 49:9-10 and “the root of David” is a quote from Isaiah 11:1, that is:

 

9. Judah is a lion's whelp. My son, you have gone up from the prey. He stooped, he crouched like a lion; and like a lioness, who will rouse him? 10. The sceptre will not depart from Judah, nor a Lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come. And the obedience of the peoples to him.

 

and

 

1. And a shoot goes out from the stump of Jesse, and a Branch will grow out of his roots.

 

Hakham Shaul (Apostle Paul) conflates both Genesis 49:10 and Isaiah 1:1 and states:

 

Romans 15:12 And again Isaiah says, "There will be a root of Jesse, and He who will rise to reign over the Gentiles, in Him will the Gentiles trust.”

 

What is therefore the Elder reminding Hakham Yochanan in this verse? The answer already we have indicated above when explaining the seven seals. The Elder is reminding Hakham Yochanan that already HaShem had made His seven-fold spirit to tabernacle fully in the Mashiach, for the purpose of bringing forth justice and bring human history to its logical conclusion, as it is said (Isaiah 11:1-10):

 

1. And there will come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch will grow forth out of his roots. 2. And the spirit of HaShem will rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of HaShem. 3. And his delight will be in the reverential fear of HaShem; and he will not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither decide after the hearing of his ears; 4. But with righteousness / generosity will he judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the land; and he will smite the land with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips will he slay the wicked / lawless. 5. And righteousness / generosity will be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins. 6. Also the wolf will dwell with the lamb, and the leopard will lie down with the kid; and the calf and the cub lion and the fatling together; and a little child will lead them. 7. And the cow and the bear will feed; their young ones will lie down together; and the lion will eat straw like the ox. 8. And the suckling child will play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child will put his hand on the adder's den. 9. They will not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain; for the earth will be full of the knowledge of HaShem, as the waters cover the sea. 10. And in that day there will be the Root of Jesse standing for a banner of the people; to him the Gentiles will seek; and his resting place will be glorious.

 

Or, taking another view, that the Mashiach “has become worthy” to open the seals because his body, that is, the Commonwealth of Israel is complete (i.e. the full number of the Gentiles have already become members of the Commonwealth of Israel).

 

Concerning the English rendition of the Greek for ‘Root of David” there are some that propose that this expression teaches that Mashiach is the root of King David, and therefore indication his supposed divinity. However, Barnes[29] comments on this expression:

 

 “[The Root of David] Not the Root of David in the sense that David sprung from him as a tree does from a root, but in the sense that he himself was a "root-shoot" or sprout from David, and had sprung from him as a shoot or sprout springs up from a decayed and fallen tree. ... This expression would connect him directly with David, the great and glorious monarch of Israel, and as having a right to occupy his throne. As one thus ruling over the people of HaShem, there was a propriety that to him should be entrusted the task of opening these seals.”

 

Revelation 5:6

 

(KJV+) And2532 I beheld,1492 and,2532 lo,2400 in1722 the midst3319 of the3588 throne2362 and2532 of the3588 four5064 beasts,2226 and2532 in1722 the midst3319 of the3588 elders,4245 stood2476 a Lamb721 as5613 it had been slain,4969 having2192 seven2033 horns2768 and2532 seven2033 eyes,3788 which3739 are1526 the3588 seven2033 Spirits4151 of HaShem2316 sent forth649 into1519 all3956 the3588 earth.1093

 

(YLT) and I saw, and lo, in the midst of the throne, and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, a Lamb hath stood as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the Seven Spirits of HaShem, which are sent to all the earth,

 

(ALT) And I saw in [the] middle of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in [the] middle of the elders, a Lamb having stood as if having been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of HaShem [fig., is the seven-fold Spirit] having been sent into all the earth.

 

In the midst of the throne, and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders,

 

That is, not on the throne (compare Rev 5:7) as some would suggest, but in the midst (μέσος - “midst”) of the company of elders (Rev 4:4) which was “round about the throne.”[30] Beale agrees with this proposition and comments: “That the Lamb stands somewhere in the area around the throne instead of on the throne itself is apparent from the fact that v 7 portrays the Lamb making an approach to the throne.”[31] What in fact, we have here is a Hebraism translated literally into the Greek, pointing to the fact that this is a rendition into the Greek of a Hebrew original source. To understand this Hebraism we need to go to the re-translation of the Greek to the Hebrew. Delitzch[32] has:

 

“VaEre (And I saw) V’Hineh (And behold) Bein (Between) HaKise (The throne) V’Arba (And four) HaChayot (The living creatures) UBein (And between) HaZ’qenim (The elders) ...”

 

Translated then this Hebraism into “normal / comprehensible” English, we have: “And I saw, and Behold, between the throne and the four living creatures on the one hand, and between the throne and the elders on the other, a lamb was standing ...”[33]

 

A lamb having stood as if having been slain

 

Here an allusion is made to at least two key Biblical passages, Exodus 12:1-20 and Isaiah 53:1-12. In Exodus (Jewish Publication Society version) we read:

 

1. And HaShem spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying: 2. 'This month will be unto you the beginning of months; it will be the first month of the year to you. 3. Speak unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they will take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers' houses, a lamb for a household; 4. and if the household be too little for a lamb, then will he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man's eating you will make your count for the lamb. 5. Your lamb will be without blemish, a male of the first year; you will take it from the sheep, or from the goats; 6. and you will keep it unto the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel will kill it at dusk. 7. And they will take of the blood, and put it on the two side-posts and on the lintel, upon the houses wherein they will eat it. 8. And they will eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; with bitter herbs they will eat it. 9. Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; its head with its legs and with the inwards thereof. 10. And you will let nothing of it remain until the morning; but that which remains of it until the morning you will burn with fire. 11. And thus will you eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you will eat it in haste - it is HaShem’s Passover. 12. For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the HaShems of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am HaShem. 13. And the blood will be to you for a token upon the houses where you are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and there will no plague be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt. 14. And this day will be unto you for a memorial, and you will keep it a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations you will keep it a feast by an ordinance forever. 15. Seven days will you eat unleavened bread; howbeit the first day you will put away leaven out of your houses; for whosoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul will be cut off from Israel. 16. And in the first day there will be to you a holy convocation, and in the seventh day a holy convocation; no manner of work will be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you. 17. And you will observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt; therefore will you observe this day throughout your generations by an ordinance forever. 18. In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, you will eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. 19. Seven days will there be no leaven found in your houses; for whosoever eats that which is leavened, that soul will be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a sojourner, or one that is born in the land.

 

Concerning v.2, Midrash Rabba, The Song of Songs II, 8, § 3,[34] comments:

 

The Rabbis say: HARK MY BELOVED, BEHOLD HE COMES: this refers to Moses. When he came and said to Israel, ‘In this month ye are to be redeemed,’ they said to him: ‘Our teacher Moses, how can we be redeemed seeing that all Egypt is defiled with our idolatrous worship?’ He replied: ‘Since HaShem desires to deliver you, He takes no heed of your idolatry, but LEAPS OVER THE MOUNTAINS, “mountains” being only a name for idolatry, as it says, They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and offer upon the hills (Hos. IV, 13). And in this month ye are to be redeemed, as it says, “This month shall be unto you, etc.”’

 

R. Judan and R. Hunia also gave different explanations. R. Judan in the name of R. Eliezer the son of R. Jose the Galilean, and R. Hunia in the name of R. Eliezer b. Jacob, said: HARK MY BELOVED, BEHOLD HE COME: this refers to the Mashiach. When he will say to Israel, ‘In this month ye are to be redeemed,’ they will say to him ‘How can we be delivered, seeing that the Holy one, blessed be He, has sworn that He will subject us to the seventy nations?’ He will give them two answers and say: ‘If one of you is carried away to Barbary and one to Sarmatia, it is as if all of you had been carried off there. And again, this state levies troops from all the world, from every nation, and so if one Cuthean or Barbarian comes and rules over you, it is as if all of his nation had ruled over you and as if you had served the whole seventy nations. Hence in this month you are to be delivered after all, as it says, “This month shall be unto you the beginning of months, etc.” ’

 

The Talmud reiterates this theme by declaring that the future redemption will be like our redemption in the days of Moses.

 

Rosh HaShana 11a It has been taught: R. Eliezer says: In Tishri the world was created; in Tishri the Patriarchs were born; in Tishri the Patriarchs died; on Passover Isaac was born; on New Year Sarah, Rachel and Hannah were visited; on New Year Joseph went forth from prison; on New Year the bondage of our ancestors in Egypt ceased; in Nisan they were redeemed and in Nisan they will be redeemed in the time to come. R. Joshua says: In Nisan the world was created; in Nisan the Patriarchs were born; in Nisan the Patriarchs died; on Passover Isaac was born; on New Year Sarah, Rachel and Hannah were visited; on New Year Joseph went forth from prison; on New Year the bondage of our ancestors ceased in Egypt; and in Nisan they will be redeemed in time to come.

 

And Pesiqta da-Rab Kahana, Piska 5, 7[35] comments:

 

… R. Yudan taught in the name of R. Eliezer ben R. Jose the Galilean, and R. Huna taught in the name of R. Eliezer ben Jacob: Hark! My beloved! behold, he comes. That is, the king Mashiach cometh. When he comes and says to Israel, “In this month you shall be redeemed.” they will ask: “Our master, O king Mashiach, how can we be redeemed? Has not the Holy One said that He will reduce us to servitude among seventy nations?” Then the Mashiach will make exactly clear by two illustrations what HaShem meant by His statement: if only one of you is banished to Barbaria and only another one of you is banished to Sarmatia, He will consider it as though all of you had been banished. Moreover, since this wicked kingdom—[Rome]—levies troops from each and every nation, if a Cuthean comes and forces even only one of you into military service, He will consider it as though the entire people of Israel were conscripted. If an Ethiopian comes and forces even only one of you into military service, He will consider it as though the entire people of Israel were conscripted. Hence, in whatever month circumstances such as these occur, you shall be redeemed. This month shall be unto you the beginning of months (Exod. 12:2)—[the beginning of your redemption].

 

And in Isaiah (Jewish Publication Society version), we read:

 

1. 'Who would have believed our report? And to whom has the arm of HaShem been revealed? 2. For he shot up right forth as a sapling, and as a root out of a dry ground; he had no form nor comeliness, that we should look upon him, nor beauty that we should delight in him. 3. He was despised, and forsaken of men, a man of pains, and acquainted with disease, and as one from whom men hide their face: he was despised, and we esteemed him not. 4. Surely our diseases he did bear, and our pains he carried; whereas we did esteem him stricken, smitten of HaShem, and afflicted. 5. But he was wounded because of our transgressions, he was crushed because of our iniquities / lawlessness: the chastisement of our welfare was upon him, and with his stripes we were healed. 6. All we like sheep did go astray, we turned everyone to his own way; and HaShem has made to light on him the iniquity/lawlessness of us all. 7. He was oppressed, though he humbled himself and opened not his mouth; as a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and as a sheep that before her shearers is dumb; yes, he opened not his mouth. 8. By oppression and judgment he was taken away, and with his generation who did reason? For he was cut off out of the land of the living, for the transgression of my people to whom the stroke was due. 9. And they made his grave with the wicked / lawless, and with the rich his tomb; although he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.' 10. Yet it pleased HaShem to crush him by disease; to see if his soul would offer itself in restitution, that he might see his seed, prolong his days, and that the purpose of HaShem might prosper by his hand: 11. Of the travail of his soul he will see to the full, even My servant, who by his knowledge did justify the Righteous One to the many, and their iniquities / lawlessness he did bear. 12. Therefore will I divide him a portion among the great, and he will divide the spoil with the mighty; because he bare his soul unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.

 

This passage is rendered by Targum Jonathan to the Prophets as:

 

53.1 Who has believed this our report? And to whom has the strength of the mighty arm of HaShem been so revealed? .2 And the righteous will be exalted before him, behold, like tufts which sprout, and like a tree which sends its roots by streams of waters, so holy generations will increase on the land which was needing him; his appearance is not a common appearance and his fearfulness is not an ordinary fearfulness, and his brilliance will be holy brilliance, that everyone who looks at him will consider him. 3 Then the glory of all the kingdoms will be for contempt and cease; they will be faint and mournful, behold, as a man of sorrows and appointed for sicknesses; and as when the face of the Shekhinah was taken up from us, they are despised and not esteemed. 4 Then he will beseech concerning our sins and our iniquities for his sake will be forgiven; yet we were esteemed wounded, smitten before HaShem and afflicted. 5 And he will build the sanctuary which was profaned for our sins, handed over for our iniquities; and by his teaching his peace will increase upon us, and in that we attach ourselves to his words our sins will be forgiven us. 6 All we like sheep have been scattered; we have gone into exile, everyone his own way; and before HaShem it was a pleasure to forgive the sins of us all for his sake. 7 He beseeches, and he is answered, and before he opens his mouth he is accepted; the strong ones of the peoples he will hand over like a lamb to the sacrifice, and like a ewe which before its shearers is dumb, so there is not before him one who opens his mouth or speaks a saying. 8 From bonds and retribution he will bring our exiles near; the wonders which will be done for us in his days, who will be able to recount? For he will take away the rule of the Gentiles from the land of Israel; the sins which my people sinned he will cast on to them. 9 And he will hand over the wicked / lawless to Gehenna and those rich in possessions which they robbed to the death of the corruption, lest those who commit sin be established, and speak of possessions with their mouth. 10 Yet before HaShem it was a pleasure to refine and to cleanse the remnant of his people, in order to purify their soul from sins; they will see the kingdom of their Mashiach, they will increase sons and daughters, they will prolong days; those who perform the law of HaShem will prosper in his pleasure; 11 from the slavery of the Gentiles he will deliver their soul, they will see the retribution of their adversaries. They will be satisfied with the plunder of their kings; by his wisdom will he make innocents to be accounted innocent, to subject many to the law; and he will beseech concerning their sins. 12 Then I will divide him the plunder of' many peoples, and he will divide the spoil, the possessions of strong fortresses; because he handed over his soul to the death, and subjected the rebels to the law; yet he will beseech concerning the sins of many, and to the rebels it will be forgiven for him.

 

Both of these two passages, taken as whole, propose the central idea of a lamb’s sacrifice that accomplishes redemption and passing over transgressions of the Law. One interesting point that many seem to miss, and following our comments on Revelation 5:1, in the one of the places where the blood of the lamb was sprinkled (i.e. on the right door post – cf. Exodus 12:7 – “take of the blood, and put it on the two side-posts and on the lintel”) the mezuzah now hangs on all Jewish homes. It is as if the mezuzah not only serves to remind us about the obligation to observe HaShem’s Laws, as well as HaShem’s protection over our homes, but also to recall forever that we were / are / and will be redeemed by the blood / life of the lamb.

 

There is also an echo here to the words of Yochanan the Immerser (John the Baptist) who when meeting the Master whilst he was proclaiming the immersion of repentance on the bank of the river Jordan, exclaimed (John 1:29): “The next day Yochanan sees Yeshua coming towards him and says, "Behold! The Lamb of G-d (Hebrew: הִנֵּה שֵׂה הָאֱלֹהִים Hine Seh HaElohim) [HaShem in His attribute of Justice], the One taking away the sin of the world (Hebrew: Olam – age / world = the Gentiles)!”[36]

 

Now, when Yochanan states that this is the Lamb of HaShem that will take away the sins of the Gentiles, this is not to be interpreted literally, as if all the Gentiles are included. Yes, all the Gentiles are called to come and submit to the Lamb of HaShem and enter into the Commonwealth of Israel after observing the commandments contained in the mezuzah scroll, and entering through the gates of a Jewish Bet Din (Rabbinic Tribunal), however not all will respond to this call of Grace. Yochanan also is clearly pointing out that upon this lamb HaShem will meet all the justice demanded from those who adhere to him and observe the commandments together with the most noble Jewish people / nation.

 

Similarly, the Holy Zohar in B’resheet, Section 1, Page 239b, 240a[37] states:

 

He has washed his garments in wine”, even from the time of the Creation the reference being to the coming of the Mashiach on earth. “Wine” indicates the left side, and “the blood of grapes” the left side below. The Mashiach is destined to rule above over all the forces of the idolatrous nations and to break their power above and below. We may also explain that as wine brings joyfulness and yet typifies judgement, so the Mashiach will bring gladness to Israel, but judgement to the Gentiles. The “spirit of HaShem which hovered over the face of the waters” (Gen. I, 2) is the spirit of the Mashiach, and from the time of the Creation he “washed his garments in celestial wine.”

 

Shimon, also one of the Tsadiqim (saints) living in Israel also prophesied at the Master’s Pidyon Ha-Ben as recorded in I Lukas 2:25-32:

 

25. And look! There was a man in Jerusalem whose name [was] Shimon, and this man was righteous / generous and devout, waiting for [or, expecting] the comforting help of Israel, and [the] Holy Spirit was upon him. 26. And it had been divinely told him by the Holy Spirit [that he would] not see death before he saw the Mashiach ["the Anointed One"] of [the] Lord. 27. And he came by the Spirit to the temple, and the parents brought in the young child Yeshuah, [for] them to do according to the custom of the Law concerning Him. 28. Then he took him (the child) into his arms and blessed HaShem and said, 29. "Now You are releasing Your servant, Master, according to Your Word, in peace. 30. "Because my eyes have seen Your salvation, 31. which You prepared before [the] face [fig., in the presence] of all the peoples, 32. a light for revelation to Gentiles, and [the] glory of Your people Israel!"

 

The Holy Zohar, also adds a different take. The “lamb of G-d” seems to be based on the perpetual lamb offering in the morning and in the evening, and which purpose is to gather the dispersed of Israel, and re-unite all the tribes of Israel. In I, 133a,[38] it states

 

“R. Simeon then rose up and they proceeded on their way, the stranger accompanying them as far as Tiberias. On the way R. Simeon said: ‘Observe that the members of the Great Synod [Tr. note: A body which, according to Rabbinic tradition, regulated the affairs of the Jewish community during the lifetime of Ezra and for some time afterwards.] instituted the prayers in correspondence to the fixed daily offerings, of which there were two, as it is written, “the one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer between the two evenings” (Num. XXVIII, 4), that is, at the two periods which coincide with the periods of prayer.’ Said the stranger: ‘Since originally it was the patriarchs who instituted the prayers, why should those instituted by Abraham and Isaac be of primary importance, while the one instituted by Jacob, who was the cream of the patriarchs, be only voluntary?’ R. Simeon replied: ‘The reason, as has been affirmed, is as follows: The two periods of the two earlier prayers have for their object only to unite Jacob to his heritage, but once this has been effected we need nothing further: as soon as the Woman is placed between the two arms and is joined to the Body, nothing more is needed. The two prayers are thus the two arms between which Jacob is united to the body, that is, to heaven, in accordance with the verse, “but thou, O Lord, art on high for evermore” (Ps. XCII, 9). All this contains deep mysteries known only to the initiated.’ R. Abba and the Judean then approached R. Simeon and kissed his hand, after which R. Abba remarked: ‘Until this day I always found here a difficulty, but now happy is my portion that I have been privileged to solve it!’”

 

And similarly in the Holy Zohar II, 21b,[39] we read:

 

“R. Isaac cited the verse: “And the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel will kill it between the evenings” (Ex. XII, 6), the reason being, he said, that that is the time for the execution of judgement. R. Judah said: ‘This we derive from the ordinance concerning the two daily offerings, the one answering to the attribute of Mercy, the other to the attribute of Severity. So Scripture says, “The one lamb you will offer in the morning” (Ex. XXIX, 39), where the designation “the one” signifies the special one, to wit, the one answering the attribute of Mercy; whereas the second lamb to be offered up between the evenings is associated with Severity, being analogous to the second day of Creation, of the works of which it is not said “that it was good”.’ Said R. Tanhum: ‘It is for this reason that Isaac instituted the Afternoon-prayer (Minhah), namely, to mitigate the then ruling Severity; whereas Abraham instituted Morning-prayer, corresponding to the attribute of Mercy.’ R. Isaac said: ‘This idea may be derived from the verse saying: “Woe unto us, for the day declines, for the shadows of the evening are stretched out!” (Jer. VI, 4), “the day declines” being an allusion to the attribute of Mercy, and “the shadows of the evening” signifying the attribute of Severity.’”

 

Having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of HaShem [fig., is the seven-fold Spirit] having been sent into all the earth.

 

According to Morris[40] the “seven horns” are a reminder of the invasion of Jericho, where the Scripture states:

 

Joshua 6:1. Now Jericho was straitly shut up because of the children of Israel: none went out, and none came in. - 2. And HaShem said unto Joshua: 'See, I have given into your hand Jericho, and the king thereof, even the mighty men of valour. 3. And you will compass the city, all the men of war, going about the city once. Thus will you do six days. 4. And seven priests will bear seven rams' horns before the ark; and the seventh day you will compass the city seven times, and the priests will blow with the horns. 5. And it will be, that when they make a long blast with the ram's horn, and when you hear the sound of the horn, all the people will shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city will fall down flat, and the people will go up every man straight before him.'

 

Joshua, whose name is the same of that of our Master, has already set a precedent with the seven Shofarot (ram’s horns). These seven horns were used to destroy an extremely fortified city of the Gentiles, and so the vision paints the Master as possessing these seven horns which will again be sued to destroy Gentile cities and fortifications in the judgements against the Gentiles that will ensue in the next two chapters.

 

Now some will ask, if this is all about the judgment of the Gentiles, what about the Jewish people? Gaebelein,[41] at this point introduces and interesting comment. He states that the reference as Mashiach the “Lion of Judah” in (v.5) and the “Root of David” underscores the fact “that Judah and the House of David will be remembered in mercy when the judgement [of the Gentiles] sweeps over the earth.” This again connects perfectly with the “slain lamb” in Egypt, where the angel of death took the firstborn of all the Gentile homes but did not touch the Jewish firstborns. In Egypt we had the blood of the paschal lamb on our doorposts, now every Jewish observant home has a mezuzah on the doorposts that will save us in mercy from the judgments to be poured out upon the Gentiles.

 

As to the seven eyes, some point to the fact the Mashiach is Omniscient, something that we do not accept for HaShem alone, most blessed be He, is Omniscient. However, we surely agree with Ryrie[42] that the seven eyes “represent the fullness of the Spirit of G-d” tabernacling fully in the person of the Mashiach, as we have explained above. These are said to “having been sent into all the earth.” That is, the justice that the Mashiach will dispense upon the Gentiles, will be total and complete, exempting none and leaving none to hide from his justice on behalf of HaShem, most blessed be He, and Israel.

 

Revelation 5:7

 

(KJV+) And2532 he came2064 and2532 took2983 the3588 book975 out of1537 the3588 right hand1188 of him that sat2521 upon1909 the3588 throne.2362

 

(YLT) and he came and took the scroll out of the right hand of Him who is sitting upon the throne.

 

(ALT) And He came and has taken out of the right hand of the One sitting on the throne.

 

Here we are presented with the fulfilment of what Daniel prophesied in a night vision (Daniel 7:13-14):

 

13. I saw in the night visions, and, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven one like unto a son of man, and he came even to the Ancient of days, and he was brought near before Him. 14. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which will not pass away, and his kingdom that which will not be destroyed.

 

Please note that the lamb is not sitting on the throne but HaShem, most blessed be He, is. Thus, the picture presented here is one of delegated authority. Also, the fact that the lamb (i.e. Mashiach) took the scroll from the right hand of HaShem, also means that the people (the Jewish people and Gentile G-d fearers who have attached themselves to Israel) whom Mashiach embodies also have taken the scroll with him, and with him will judge the Gentiles.

 

Revelation 5:8

 

(KJV+) And2532 when3753 he had taken2983 the3588 book,975 the3588 four5064 beasts2226 and2532 four and twenty1501, 5064 elders4245 fell down4098 before1799 the3588 Lamb,721 having2192 every one of them1538 harps,2788 and2532 golden5552 vials5357 full1073 of odors,2368 which3739 are1526 the3588 prayers4335 of saints.40

 

(YLT) And when he took the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before the Lamb, having each one harps and golden vials full of perfumes, which are the prayers of the saints,

 

(ALT) And when He took the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp and golden bowls full of incenses, which are {the} prayers of the holy ones [or, saints, and throughout book].

 

And when he took the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before the Lamb,

 

Most Christian exegetes entitle this passage as “the worship of the Lamb,” yet these fail to compare this verse with Revelation 4:10-11. It seems that this is case where their doctrinal pre-conceptions are superimposed over the text, rather than letting the text speak for itself. Here are the two passages in question, and let the reader see if he can spot this elemental difference.

 

Revelation 4:10 the twenty-four elders will fall down before the One sitting on the throne and will prostrate themselves in worship before the One living into the ages of the ages [fig., forever and ever], and they will cast their victor's wreaths before the throne, saying, 11 "You are worthy, our HaShem and G-d, the Holy [One], to receive the glory and the honor and the power, because You created {all} the [things], and because of Your will they are [fig., exist] and were created!"

 

And compare with

 

Revelation 5:8 And when He took the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp and golden bowls full of incenses, which are {the} prayers of the holy ones [or, saints, and throughout book].

 

Please note the important difference that in relation to HaShem (Rev. 4:10), the elders “fall down and prostrate themselves in worship before HaShem,” but in Revelation 5:8, we read only that the elders “fell down before the Lamb.” Revelation 5:8 has no prostration and worship of the Lamb!

 

It is further clear from Revelation 4:10, that “falling down” is not the same as “worship.” The Greek word used here is “EPESON,” and perhaps a better translation would be “to pay homage” as it is done to human kings. For example, before the Queen of England one would “fall down” on one’s knee to pay one’s homage to her. That is why, in Rev. 4:10, when in the presence of HaShem, the elders are said to “prostrate themselves in worship” however in Rev. 5:8 what we have is just a falling down before a King, the Mashiach, and not an act of worship.

 

Each one having a harp and golden bowls full of incenses, which are {the} prayers of the holy ones [or, saints, and throughout book].

 

The harps are symbolic of the book of Psalms as it is said:

 

Psalm 33:2 Give thanks unto HaShem with the harp, sing praises unto Him with the psaltery of ten strings.

 

Psalm 98:5 Sing praises unto HaShem with the harp; with the harp and the voice of melody.

 

Psalm 147:7 Sing unto HaShem with thanksgiving, sing praises upon the harp unto our G-d;

 

And the bowls of incense are the prayers of the saints, as the text itself states, and as also Mashiach King David proclaims (Psalm 141:2):

 

Let my prayer be set forth as incense before You, the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice.”

 

It is interesting to note that Hebrew is a living language, and therefore alike all living languages, albeit with less frequency, certain words fall into disuse and other words come to be used for the same concepts. Here, we find one such word. In ancient times, men and women who were righteous / generous were called “Qadoshim” (Saints), today we use a different word for the same concept: “TSADIQIM” (Pl.), TSADIQ (Sing.).

 

At this point Ladd[43] comments:

 

“The reference to the prayers of the saints at this point seems to be their prayers for the coming of the Kingdom. “Your Kingdom come, Your will be done on earth as it is in the Heavens” is an age-long prayer of the church which is now about to be answered.”

 

We agree in part, for the so called “Master’s Prayer” is actually a shortened form of the "Shemoneh Esreh", the 18 blessings, or what is also known as the “Amidah” (meaning "standing"), and as the following table[44] perfectly shows:


 

States of Master's Prayer (Matthew 6:9-13)

Shemoneh Eshreh (Amidah)

1. Worship (vs. 9)

Our Father Who sits in the heavens, May You and Your Name be hallowed (sanctified).

 

1. HaShem as the protector of the Forefathers
2. HaShem as the power that makes for salvation
3. HaShem as the source of holiness
4. For knowledge

4. Repentance (vs. 12)

And forgive us our sins, as we forgive those that sin against us.

5. For the strength to repent
6. For forgiveness

3. Requests (vs. 11)

Give us of Your bread from day to day.

 

7. For relief from affliction
8. For healing
9. For bounty and material prosperity
10. For the ingathering of the exiles

2. Restoration (vs. 10)

May Your government come. May Your will be done in the heavens and in the land.

 

 

11. For the establishment of the reign of true justice
14. For the rebuilding of Jerusalem
15. For the coming of the Mashiach
16. For the acceptance of our prayers
17. For the restoration of the Sanctuary

5. Protection for righteous (vs. 13a)

And do not bring us into the hand of testing, but watch over and guard us from all evil:

 

12. Against slanderers and heretics.
13. For the support and protection of the righteous

6. Thanksgiving (Praise) vs. 13b)

For Yours is the government, and all the power, and all the glory, forever, and ever. Amen!

18. Gratitude as man's response to HaShem's work in the world
19. For peace

 

Justice # 11

11. Restore our judges as at first, and our counselors as in the beginning, removing from us sorrow and sighing; rule over us, You alone, HaShem, with kindness and mercy, and vindicate us in the judgment. Blessed are You, HaShem, King, who loves righteousness / generosity and judgment.

 

Against slanderers and heretics # 12

12. For slanderers let there be no hope, and let all wickedness / lawlessness instantly perish. May all Your enemies be quickly cut off; and as for the malicious, swiftly uproot, break, cast down, and subdue quickly in our day. Blessed are You, HaShem, who breaks the power of His enemies and subdues the malicious.

 

For the righteous/generous # 13

13. On the righteous/generous and the saintly, on the elders of Your people, the house of Israel, and on their surviving scholars, on the true proselyte and on ourselves, let Your compassion flow, HaShem our G-d. Grant a good reward to all who sincerely trust in Your Name; place our lot with them forever and let us not be shamed, for in You do we trust. Blessed are You, HaShem, the support and security of the righteous / generous.

 

For Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) # 14

14. To Jerusalem Your city, return with compassion, and dwell within it as You promised; rebuild it soon in our day, an everlasting structure; and speedily establish in its midst the throne of David. Blessed are You, HaShem, builder of Jerusalem.

 

Davidic (Mashiach’s) Reign # 15

15. The offspring of Your servant David, quickly cause to flourish, and lift up his power by Your deliverance; for Your deliverance do we constantly hope. Blessed are You, HaShem, Who makes the glory of deliverance to flourish.

 

Acceptance of prayer # 16

16. Hear our voice, HaShem our G-d, show compassion and mercy to us, accept our prayers with mercy and favor, for You are a G-d Who hears prayers and supplications.

 

Restoration of the Temple # 17

17. Favorably receive, HaShem our G-d, Your people Israel and their prayer, restore the worship to Your temple in Zion, receive with love and favor the offerings of Israel and their prayer, and may the worship of Your people Israel always be favorably received by You, may our eyes behold Your return to Zion in mercy. Blessed are You, LORD, Who restores Hi Divine Presence to Zion.

 

That is, the reference to the prayers of the saints seems to be their prayers for the coming of the Kingdom in the Amidah clauses 11-17, and which is an age-long prayer of the Jewish Synagogue that is now about to be answered:

 

That the Master’s prayer is a summary of the Amidah can be seen from the preceding verses in Matityahu (Matthew) 6:5-6, where we read:

 

“5. At the appointed time you pray, do not raise your voice, and do not be like the mournful painted ones who love to pray the Amidah with lofty words in the synagogue and in the corner of the courtyards so that men might hear them and praise them. Amen, I tell you, they have already received their reward. 6. But when you pray the Amidah enwrap yourself in your Talit (prayer closet), and when no one can see your face, pray to your Father in secret, and your Father who sees in secret, will reward you openly.”

 

It is this prayer then, of the Tsadiqim represented by the twenty-four Elders, that is about to have its complete fulfilment.

 

Revelation 5:9

 

(KJV+) And2532 they sung103 a new2537 song,5603 saying,3004 Thou art1488 worthy514 to take2983 the3588 book,975 and2532 to open455 the3588 seals4973 thereof:848 for3754 thou wast slain,4969 and2532 hast redeemed59 us2248 to HaShem2316 by1722 thy4675 blood129 out of1537 every3956 kindred,5443 and2532 tongue,1100 and2532 people,2992 and2532 nation;1484

 

(YLT) and they sing a new song, saying, `Worthy art thou to take the scroll, and to open the seals of it, because thou wast slain, and didst redeem us to HaShem in thy blood, out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation,

 

(ALT) And they sing a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slain, and You redeemed us to HaShem by Your blood, out of every tribe and tongue [fig., language group, and throughout book] and people and nation,

 

And they sing a new song

 

Midrash Tanhuma[45] 1.32 to Genesis 5:1 ff., comments:

 

(Gen. 5:1:) THIS IS THE BOOK.... What did the Holy One do to Adam? He cast a sleep upon him and showed him Noah and all the unblemished, Abraham and all the proselytes, Isaac and all who sacrifice burnt offerings, Jacob and all tent dwellers, Moses and all the humble, Aaron and all the priests, Joshua and all the community leaders, David and all the kings, [Solomon and all the Judges]. Then, when he had seen them all, he awakened from his sleep. The Holy One said to him: Have you seen [these? By your life], all these righteous / generous [are] coming forth from you. When he had told him this, his spirit was at rest. David said: Sovereign of the World, you have written me into the book of the first Adam, as stated (in Ps. 40:8 [7]): THEN SAID I: LO, I HAVE COME. IN THE SCROLL OF THE BOOK IT IS WRITTEN CONCERNING ME. Therefore I must utter a song to you, since it is stated: THEN SAID I. Now THEN can only be A SONG [according to what is stated (in Exod. 15:1): MOSES SANG THEN]. < David > therefore praises him (in Ps. 40:6 [5]): YOU HAVE DONE MANY THINGS, O LORD MY G-D. When should we utter a song to you? In the world to come, as stated (in Ps. 98:1): A PSALM. O SING TO THE LORD A NEW SONG.

 

Midrash Exodus Rabba[46] at XXIII.11 commenting on Exodus 15:1 “Then sang Moses ...” states:

 

“All the songs ever recited [by Israel] are designated by the feminine form [they are referred to in the Bible as SHIRAH (song), which is the feminine of SHIR], as if to imply: Just as a woman conceives and gives birth again and again, so troubles ever recur upon them [troubles will come, but from them all will they be delivered; the word SHIRAH is, therefore symbolical of this recurrence of the pangs of trouble giving birth to salvation]; that is why they recited their songs in the feminine form. Hence have Babylon and Media (Persia), Greece and Edom (Rome) subjected Israel. But in the Messianic Age, there will no longer be any troubles, for it says, Because the former troubles are forgotten (Isaiah 65:16), and They will obtain gladness and joy (ib. 25:10). At that time, they will recite a song in the masculine form (SHIR), for it says, O Sing to the LORD a new song (Psalm 98:1) – [since troubles will cease, there will no longer be any need for salvation to be born; hence SHIR is in the masculine].

 

The Midrash on Psalms[47] commenting on Psalm 98:1 states:

 

A Psalm. O sing unto the LORD a new song, etc. (Ps. 98:1). Elsewhere, this is what Scripture says: Sing unto the LORD a new song, and His praise from the end of the earth (Isa. 42:10), a song to be sung at the deliverance of Israel.

 

His right hand, and His holy arm, has wrought deliverance for Him (Ps. 98:1). R. Aha taught: As long as the people of Israel are in exile, the right hand of the Holy One, blessed be He, is held in thrall, if one dare to speak thus. But when Israel is redeemed, mark that it is written His right hand, and His holy arm, has wrought deliverance for Him. And it is also written The Lord hath made bare His holy arm in the eyes of all the nations; and all the ends of the earth will see the deliverance of our G-d (Isa. 52:10). Hence it is said He has remembered His mercy and His faithfulness toward the house of Israel; all the ends of the earth have seen the deliverance of our G-d (Ps. 98:3).”

 

And Da’at Mikra[48] on the Psalms comments as well on this verse:

 

Sing to the LORD a new song. This is the Psalmist’s invocation to the congregation of worshippers. ... For He has done marvels. The word KI, “for” introduces the reason for the command: “Sing to the LORD a new song” – because He has performed marvels, and it is fitting to compose a new song in His honor. The word KI can also be understood in the sense of “that”: Sing to the LORD a new song and say that He has done marvels. The term NIFLA’OT, “marvels,” refers here to acts of salvation that HaShem has performed for His people. Similarly, (Exodus 34:10): “Before all your people, I will do marvels.” Also see Psalms 72:18; and 86:10. His right hand and His holy arm have gained Him the victory. The Psalmist speaks here in human terms, praising a mighty warrior who has won the battle by himself, without assistance. Moreover, it is stressed that he fought only with his hands, without weapons. Similarly (Isaiah 63:5) “And I gazed astonished that that there was none to uphold me. Therefore my own arm has brought salvation to me, and as for my fury, it has upheld me.” (See also Isaiah 59:16.) The singular past form of the verb HOSHI’AH, “has gained victory,” relates to “His right hand and His holy arm,” which are regarded as a single entity. Similarly (I Kings 20:3): “Your silver and your gold is Mine [LI HU].” Furthermore, the feminine form of the verb HOSHI’AH agrees with the first subject that follows it, as in Exodus 7:10. ... In any case, our verse relates to HaShem’s right hand and arm as if they were independent entities that serve HaShem, and by which HaShem gains His victories. Thus, the Psalmist states here: “His right hand and His holy arm have gained Him the victory.” Similarly (Exodus 15:6): “Your right hand, O LORD, is glorious in power. Your right hand, O LORD, has shattered the enemy,” and (Isaiah 51:9): “Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD ... Is it not you that cut Rahav in pieces,” and (Isaiah 63:12): “That led His glorious arm at the right hand of Moses.”

 

Thus, the singing of “a new song” is directly related in Scripture with the final redemption of Israel. And therefore “His right hand and His holy arm” alludes to the Mashiach who will execute at the end time redemption for Israel and judgment to the Gentiles for their treatment of the Jewish people and their lack of observance of HaShem’s commandments as the Master commanded.

 

The Holy Zohar, comments on this “new Song” in I, 123a – 124a[49]:

 

R. Jose discoursed on the verse: A Psalm. O sing unto the Lord a new song, for he hath done marvellous things; his right hand and his holy arm hath wrought salvation for him (Ps. XCVIII, 1). ‘According to the companions, this verse was uttered by the cows, of whom it is said, “and the kine sang (vayisharnah) on the way” (I Sam. VI, 12). What they sang was this Psalm, commencing: “O sing unto the Lord a new song, for he hath done marvellous things.” It should here be observed that while everything that the Holy One has created sings songs and praises before Him, both on high and here below, the chanting of these cows was not of the kind that falls within this mystical category, but was due to the fact that they were bearing the sacred ark; for as soon as the ark was removed from them they reverted to their brutishness and began lowing after the manner of other kine. Hence it was assuredly the feeling of the ark on their backs that worked within them and made them utter song. The difference between “Psalm of David” and “To David a psalm” has been expounded elsewhere. Here, however, we have “Psalm” simply. The reason is that this Psalm is one destined to be sung by the Holy Spirit at the time when the Almighty will raise Israel from the dust. Hence the epithet “new song”, since such a song will never have been chanted since the creation of the world.’ Said R. Hiya: ‘It is written, “there is nothing new under the sun” (Eccl. I, 9), whereas this song is going to be something new, and is going to happen under the sun. How can this be? The truth is that this is the moon, and is thus both “new” and “under the sun”. Why will there be a new song? Because “He hath done marvellous things; his right hand and his holy arm hath wrought salvation for him.” For whom? For that grade that intones the chant, for on that grade He supports Himself, as it were, by His right hand and by His left hand. When will that Psalm be chanted? When the dead will come to life and rise from the dust; then there will be something new that had never yet been in the world.’ Said R. Jose: ‘When the Holy One will avenge Israel on the nations, then will this Psalm be chanted. For after the resurrection of the dead the world will be perfectly renewed, and will not be as before, when death prevailed in the world through the influence of the serpent, through whom the world was defiled and disgraced.

 

`Worthy are you to take the scroll, and to open the seals of it, because you were slain, and did redeem us to HaShem in your blood, out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation,

 

As, is, this translation does not mean that the twenty-four elders are Gentile Christians as Preterists want us to believe, but rather, the twenty-four Jewish Elders are saying that the Mashiach had redeemed (regathered) the dispersed of Israel amongst “every tribe, tongue, people and nation.” A similar construction can be found in II Luqas (Acts) 2:2-11 -

 

2. And suddenly [there] came from heaven a sound like a violent rushing wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. 3. And [there] appeared to them tongues as of fire distributing themselves, and [one] sat on each one of them. 4. And they were all filled of [or, with] [the] Holy Spirit, and they began to be speaking with different tongues [fig., foreign languages], just as the Spirit was giving them to be declaring boldly. 5. Now [there] were Jews dwelling in Jerusalem, devout men from every nation of the [ones] under heaven. 6. Now this sound having occurred, the crowd came together and was bewildered, because they were each one hearing them speaking in his own language. 7. Then they themselves were all being amazed and were marveling, saying to one another, "Listen! All these [who] are speaking are Galileans, are they not? 8. "And how [is it that] we each hear in our own language in which we were born? 9. "Parthians and Medes and Elamites, and the ones dwelling in Mesopotamia, also in Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, 10. also Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya, the [one] along Cyrene, and the visiting Romans, both Jews and proselytes [i.e. converts to Judaism], 11. Cretes and Arabians, we are hearing them speaking in our tongues [fig., languages] the marvelous [deeds] of HaShem!"

 

Therefore, that the Elders and the Living Creatures are singing is about the future redemption of Israel, when all the Jewish people and the lost tribes of Israel will be regathered back to our land. The prophecy here takes it as this event is already past, therefore the vision points to a time when this redemption of all Israel has been accomplished.

 

Another way to look at this passage is pointed to us by Mounce.[50] He comments:

 

“The idea that the elders were the one’s purchased by Mashiach’s death stems from inferior variants which make the text read: “You were slain and has redeemed us to HaShem ... and hade us unto our G-d kings and priests: and we will reign on the earth” (AV, italics added). The Revised Version is correct in omitting the first pronoun and reading “them” and “they” for the other two.”

 

Consequently the RV translates:

 

Revelation 5:9 And they sing a new song, saying, Worthy art thou to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and didst purchase unto HaShem with thy blood men of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation, 10 and madest them to be unto our G-d a kingdom and priests; and they reign upon the earth.

 

According to this rendition, Mashiach through his death “purchased” from among the Gentiles a number of “Gentile men” to join the Jewish people and consequently become with us Jews “a kingdom of priests” to “reign upon the earth.”

 

Both interpretations seem to have merit, and both seem to be correct, and parallel events. What is incorrect is to make these 14 Elders and the Living Creatures Gentile Christians. To this proposition we and the testimony of Scripture, together with the teachings of our Sages, most emphatically reject.

 

Revelation 5:10

 

(KJV+) And2532 hast made4160 us2248 unto our2257 HaShem2316 kings935 and2532 priests:2409 and2532 we shall reign936 on1909 the3588 earth.1093

 

(YLT) and didst make us to our HaShem kings and priests, and we shall reign upon the earth.'

 

(ALT) and made them kings and priests to our HaShem, and they will reign on the earth."

 

Steve Gregg[51] articulating the Preterist position on the book of Revelation comments on this verse:

 

“Making the redeemed kings and priests (v.10), or, as some manuscripts have it, “a kingdom of priests,” implies that the original kingdom of priests, Israel (Exodus 19:5-6), has been done away with and replaced by the Church (cf. Hebrews 7:12; 8:13).”

 

This poisonous and evil interpretation of this passage, which is leading many Gentiles straight to the depths of hell, has no place nor precedent in the Hebrew Scriptures, and only proves the anti-Semitic sentiments of a number of Christians, and which evil and demonic sentiment served as the philosophical foundation that fuelled the crematoria of the Holocaust. That such sentiments still persist today is a witness as to how Satan mislead many who think themselves to be G-d fearers, but in truth fail to worship the G-d of Israel, and rather worship a G-d of their own imagination.

 

What we have here is an allusion to the passage of Exodus 19: 5-6, where we read:

 

5. Now therefore, if you will hearken unto My voice indeed, and keep My covenant, then you will be Mine own treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine; 6 and you will be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which you will speak unto the children of Israel.'

 

Concerning the phrase “kingdom of priests” the Holy Zohar in II, 85a,[52] comments:

 

“On Mount Sinai was Judah appointed chief in the kingdom. R. Isaac found this expressed in the words: “But Judah still rules with HaShem, and is faithful with the saints” (Hos. XII, 1), which means, that when HaShem was ruling in His Kingdom on Mount Sinai, Judah was ruling in his; when the Holy One said to Israel: “And you will be unto Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation”, Judah was found faithful and worthy to receive the kingdom, and therefore the Moon began to shine.”

 

And in II, 121a, it[53] states:

 

“R. Judah quoted here the verse: “And wisdom, where will it be found? And where is the place of understanding?” (Job XXVIII, I2). Said he: “Blessed are the Israelites for that the Holy One desires to honour them more than all the rest of mankind. At first He said unto them: “And you will be unto me a kingdom of priests” (Ex. XIX, 6). His great love to them was, however, not satisfied until he had added: “and a holy nation” (Ibid.), which signifies a higher grade; His love was still not satisfied until He called them “a holy people” (Deut. XIV, 2), which is a still higher grade; and now He shows His endless love to them by calling upon them to be “men of holiness”, which is the highest grade and destiny of all. For the Torah itself emanates from Wisdom, from the realm called ”holiness”, and Wisdom itself emanates from the region called “holy (lit. holiness) of holies”.’ Said R. Isaac: ‘The Jubilee is also designated “holiness”, as it is written: “For it is the jubilee; it will be holiness (kodesh) unto you” (Lev. XIV, I2). The Israelites who are destined to be “men of holiness” have a share in both (the Torah and the Jubilee). What is the difference in degree between “holy” and “holiness”?’ Said R. Jose: ‘The latter is the extremest, the utmost degree, but not so the former, for it is written: “And it will come to pass that he that is left in Zion, and he that remains in Jerusalem, will be called holy” (Isa. IV, 3),.which signifies that the grade of “holy” is connected with that place (i.e. with the earthly Zion and Jerusalem).”

 

So, some may ask, what are we to do with the statement of Hakham Tsefet (Apostle Peter) in 1 Tsefet (Peter) 2:9-10, where we read: “9 But you [are] a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people [for HaShem's own] possession, in order that you will proclaim the excellencies of the One having called you out of darkness into His marvellous light [Exod 9:16; Isaiah 43:20], 10 who at one time [were] not a people, but now [are the] people of HaShem; the ones not having found mercy, but now having found mercy.”?

 

The answer is simple, these are the righteous / generous from among the Gentiles who chose of themselves to fear HaShem, observe the commandments and join Israel. These are not “Christians” but Nazarean Gentile G-d fearers joining Israel and the Torah!

 

Gentile Christians do not have an identity as being a “nation.” And whilst at some stage in history, Catholics in Rome and in Spain considered themselves a “holy nation” replacing Israel, later Protestants in Holland, England and the U.S. claim that their nations were Christian nations, nevertheless, the only people who even when dispersed throughout all the earth, and still remaining “consciously” a nation over thousands of years, are the Jewish people, and by the grace of HaShem we will continue to exist as a “holy nation” to the chagrin of all anti-Semitic preterists.

 

Revelation 5:11

 

And2532 I beheld,1492 and2532 I heard191 the voice5456 of many4183 angels32 round about2943 the3588 throne2362 and2532 the3588 beasts2226 and2532 the3588 elders:4245 and2532 the3588 number706 of them846 was2258 ten thousand times ten thousand,3461, 3461 and2532 thousands of thousands;5505, 5505

 

(YLT) And I saw, and I heard the voice of many messengers round the throne, and the living creatures, and the elders--and the number of them was myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands--

 

(ALT) And I looked, and I heard as [it were the] voice of many angels around the throne and of the living creatures and of the elders; and the number of them was ten thousand [times] ten thousand, and thousands of thousands,

 

This verse parallels Daniel 7:9-10 where we read:

 

9. I was looking until the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days sat, whose robe was white as snow and the hair of His head like pure wool. His throne was like flames of fire, its wheels like burning fire. 10. A stream of fire went out and came out from before Him. A thousand thousands served Him, and a myriad myriads stood before Him. The judgment was set and the books were opened.

 

And Genesis 24:60:

 

60. And they blessed Rebekah, and said unto her: 'Our sister, be you the mother of thousands of myriads, and let your seed possess the gate of those that hate them.'

 

With Numbers 10:36 –

 

36. And when it (the Ark) rested, he said, Return, HaShem, to the myriads of the thousands of Israel.

 

As well as Deuteronomy 33:2:

 

2. And he (Moses) said: HaShem from Sinai has come, And has risen from Seir for them; He has shone from mount Paran, And has come with myriads of holy ones; At His right hand are springs for them.

 

Together with Psalm 68:17

 

17. The chariots of HaShem are myriads, even thousands upon thousands; the Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in holiness.

 

Some translations have “myriads” others “ten thousands.” There is no contradiction, for a myriad is 10,000. The plural “myriads” means a very large number and better translated to mean “countless thousands.”

 

Please note, that all of these myriads and thousands are Angelic beings together with Israelites (whether born Israelites or saintly proselytes) across thousands of generations that have remained faithful to HaShem, His Torah and His Mashiach. No anti-Semitic Preterist can be found in this innumerable and most noble crowd!

 

Revelation 5:12

 

(KJV+) Saying3004 with a loud3173 voice,5456 Worthy514 is2076 the3588 Lamb721 that was slain4969 to receive2983 power,1411 and2532 riches,4149 and2532 wisdom,4678 and2532 strength,2479 and2532 honor,5092 and2532 glory,1391 and2532 blessing.2129

 

(YLT) saying with a great voice, `Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive the power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing!'

 

(ALT) saying with a loud voice, "Worthy is the Lamb, the One having been slain, to receive the power and {the} riches and wisdom and strength and honor and glory and blessing!"

 

Here in this heavenly praise of the lamb we have a heptad of attributes which parallel the seven-fold spirit of HaShem, whom HaShem caused to tabernacle fully in the Mashiach. Thus we have:

 



 

Isaiah 11:1-5

Revelation 5:12

Power

Power

Counsel

Riches

Wisdom

Wisdom

Understanding

Strength

Knowledge

Honor

Fear of Hashem

Glory

Service

Blessing

 

Or arranged differently upon the Menorah, we have:

3

2

1

7

6

5

4

Spirit of

Counsel

Spirit of

Understanding

Spirit of Wisdom

Spirit of Service

Spirit of

Fear of the LORD

Spirit of

Knowledge

Spirit of

Might

(Power)

Riches

Strength

Wisdom

Blessing

Glory

Honor

Power

Seal 3

Seal 2

Seal 1

Seal 7

Seal 6

Seal 5

Seal 4

 

In revelation 4:5 where we introduced the concept of the seven-fold sprit we noted that there is a correspondence to the seven-fold ministry of each local congregation as well as to the seven-fold festivals. There we produced the following Table of correspondence:

 

1.     Wisdom – Sheliach Bet Din – Passover 1st Day

2.     Understanding – Sheliach Tzibur – Passover 7th Day

3.     Counsel – Masoret - Pentecost

4.     Might – Darshan – Feast of Trumpets

5.     Knowledge – Moreh/Meturgeman – Day of Atonements

6.     Fear of Hashem – Magid – Succoth 1st Day

7.     Service – Parnassim/Shamashim – Succoth 8th Day

 

Therefore, putting it altogether we have:

3

2

1

7

6

5

4

Spirit of

Counsel

Spirit of

Understanding

Spirit of Wisdom

Spirit of Service

Spirit of

Fear of the LORD

Spirit of

Knowledge

Spirit of

Might

(Power)

Riches

Strength

Wisdom

Blessing

Glory

Honor

Power

Masoret

Sheliach Tzibur

Sheliach Bet Din

Paranassim

Magid

Moreh

Meturgeman

Darshan

Pentecost

Passover

7th Day

Passover

1st Day

Succoth

8th Day

Succoth

1st Day

Day of

Atonements

Feast of

Trumpets

Seal 3

Seal 2

Seal 1

Seal 7

Seal 6

Seal 5

Seal 4

 


From this table we can see the effective power bestowed by the Master to all Jewish congregations which have a measure of the seven-fold spirit of HaShem present at all services and legal decisions. A well ordered Jewish congregation / community is in fact a mighty machine for the establishment of HaShem’s governance here on earth.

 

Again, this innumerable crowd in the heavens is praising Mashiach ben David because he is worthy to have the seven-fold spirit of HaShem, fully tabernacling in him and throughout all his Jewish congregations (which are his body), since (a) he has returned (redeemed) all of Israel from its Diaspora to dwell on the land, and (b) because HaShem, most blessed be He was pleased in His own eternal counsel to do so.

 

Revelation 5:13

 

(KJV+) And2532 every3956 creature2938 which3739 is2076 in1722 heaven,3772 and2532 on1722 the3588 earth,1093 and2532 under5270 the3588 earth,1093 and2532 such as3739 are2076 in1909 the3588 sea,2281 and2532 all3956 that3588 are in1722 them,846 heard191 I saying,3004 Blessing,2129 and2532 honor,5092 and2532 glory,1391 and2532 power,2904 be unto him that sitteth2521 upon1909 the3588 throne,2362 and2532 unto the3588 Lamb721 forever and ever.1519, 165, 165

 

(YLT) and every creature that is in the heaven, and in the earth, and under the earth, and the things that are upon the sea, and the all things in them, heard I saying, `To Him who is sitting upon the throne, and to the Lamb, is the blessing, and the honour, and the glory, and the might--to the ages of the ages!'

 

(ALT) And every creature which {is} in heaven and in the earth and under the earth and is on the sea, and the [things] in them, I heard all saying, "To the One sitting on the throne and to the Lamb, [be] the blessing and the honor and the glory and the might [or, dominion] into the ages of the ages [fig., forever and ever]! So be it!"

 

There seems to be here something of an order of service. In Revelation 4:8 we have the four living creatures worship HaShem the Creator, and then in Rev. 4:10-11 we have the twenty-four Jewish Elders worshipping HaShem on the throne. In this chapter, Revelation verses 9-10 we have the four living creatures (Hebrew: Chayot) and the twenty-four Elders praise the redemptive work of the lamb. And then in Revelation 5:11-12 we find many angels, the Chayot and the twenty-four Elders praising the lamb for its worthiness of the seven-fold spirit of HaShem to tabernacle fully in him. Finally in here, in Revelation 5:13, the whole of creation praises HaShem first, who sits on the throne, and then to the lamb. Putting it into table format we have.

 

Sequence

Text

Service

1.

Rev. 4:8

The Four Chayot worship HaShem on the throne

2.

Rev. 4:10-11

The 24 Jewish Elders worship HaShem on the throne

3.

Rev. 5:9-10

The Four Chayot + the 24 Jewish Elders praise the lamb

4.

Rev. 5:11-12

Many angels + the Four Chayot + the Jewish Elders praising the lamb

5.

Rev. 5:13

Whole creation praises HaShem first and then the lamb.

 

There are some that point out that this verse is an echo of Daniel 7:13-14, where we read:

 

13. I was looking in the night visions. And behold! One like the Son of Man came with the clouds of the heavens. And He came to the Ancient of Days. And they brought him near before Him 14. And dominion was given to him, and glory, and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion which will not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.

 

Since all creatures in heaven and on earth (living) and under the earth (dead), join in this praise, it is apparent that the judgment of the Gentiles has already taken place. This would indicate that what happens after Revelation 4-5 is comprehensive of all time, and then in Revelation chapter six and following we are brought back to an explanation of the opening of the seals, and the orderly judgment of the Gentiles.

 

Revelation 5:14

 

(KJV+) And2532 the3588 four5064 beasts2226 said,3004 Amen.281 And2532 the3588 four and twenty1501, 5064 elders4245 fell down4098 and2532 worshipped4352 him that liveth2198 forever and ever.1519, 165, 165

 

(YLT) and the four living creatures said, `Amen!' and the twenty-four elders fell down and they bow before Him who is living to the ages of the ages.

 

(ALT) And the four living creatures saying the "So be it" and the elders fell down and prostrated themselves in worship the One living forever and ever.

This “Him that lives forever and ever” is not the Mashiach but HaShem!

 

Clarke[54] comments on this phrase as follows:

 

Him that lives for ever - This clause is wanting in ABC, thirty-seven others, Syriac, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopic, some copies of the Slavonic, Itala, and Vulgate; and in Andreas, and Arethas, ancient commentators on this book. It is also wanting in some editions, and is undoubtedly spurious. Griesbach has left this and the above twenty-four out of the text.

 

Whilst this may be so, we believe that this ending is correct and the hand of HaShem’s providence has kept it there. Interestingly, Ladd[55] comments on this verse: “John, as a Jew, was an inflexible monotheist; there is and can be only one HaShem.” Perhaps the best way to understand this verse is as Hendriksen[56] comments: “Thus the entire universe is governed by the throne, that is by HaShem through the lamb. ... The throne rules. The lamb reigns.”

 

We conclude with Mashiach King’s David statement in Psalm 47:8-10 -

 

8. For HaShem is the King of all the earth; sing praises in a skilful song. 9. HaShem reigns over the nations; HaShem sits upon His holy throne. 10. The princes of the peoples are gathered together, the people of the G-d of Abraham; for unto HaShem belong the shields of the earth; He is greatly exalted.”

 

And we say amen ve amen!

 

Well, by the grace of HaShem we have finished this commentary on Chapter Five of the book of Revelation of Hakham Yochanan. To HaShem, most blessed be He, be all the glory, the honour and the power, forever and ever amen ve amen!

 

 

* * *

 

This study was written by Hakham Dr. Yosef ben Haggai, Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David,

Paqid Adon Micah ben Hillel, Paqid Adon Poriel ben Avraham, Adon Ezra ben Avraham.

 

Comments may be submitted to:

 

Rabbi Dr. Greg Killian

4544 Highline Drive SE

Olympia, WA 98501

 

Internet address:  gkilli@aol.com

Web page:  http://www.betemunah.org/

 

(360) 918-2905

 

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Send comments to Greg Killian at his email address: gkilli@aol.com



[1] Cf. Psalms 45:9; 60:5; 80:17; 110:1; Isaiah 28:2; and Matityahu 26:64.

[2] Robert H. Mounce, The New International Commentary on the Nazarean Codicil: The Book of Revelation, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1977, p. 142.

[3] An acronym for Torah, Neviim, and Ketuvim – The Law the Prophets, and the Writings.

[4] G.K. Beale & D. A. Carson, Commentary on the Nazarean Codicil Use of the Tanach, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2007, p.1101

[5] George Eldon Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John, Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eeerdmans Publishing Co.,1972, pp. 80-81.

[6] Biblical commandment

[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mezuzah

[8] Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Hagigah 12a

[9] R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer, Jr., & Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Tanach, Chicago: Moody Press, 1981, Vol. II, p.907

[10] Cf. Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, & Charles A. Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Tanach, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979, p.995.

[11] Eliyahu Yaniger. MezuzahNet: Ask the Sofer. Baal Shem Tov Foundation, 2003.

[12] The five books of Moses, that is the first five books of the Bible also known as the Pentateuch

[13] Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Erubin 21a.

[14] Cf. George Eldon Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John, Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eeerdmans Publishing Co.,1972, p. 82.

[15] Bamidbar 15:40

[16] Bamidbar 15:39

[17] Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:8-9.

[18] Latin for "a part for the whole".

[19] Sefer HaChinuch, book four, pages 249-289

[20] Sefer HaChinuch, book four, pages 339-351

[21] Rama Y.D. 286:1 with Pitchei Teshuva 3

[22] Bedek Habayit, Yoreh Deah 286

[23] J. B. Smith, A Revelation of Yeshua Mashiach, Scottdale, Pennsylvania: Herald Press, 1961, p.112.

[24] Ralph Earle (Compiler), Adam Clarke's Commentary, Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson, Inc. 1997.

[25] Robert H. Mounce, The New International Commentary on the Nazarean Codicil: The Book of Revelation, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1977, p. 143.

[26] Albert Barnes, Barnes' Notes on the Old and Nazarean Codicils, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1983.

[27] Apostle John

[28] Robert H. Mounce, The New International Commentary on the Nazarean Codicil: The Book of Revelation, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1977, p. 143-144.

[29] Albert Barnes, Barnes' Notes on the Old and Nazarean Codicils, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1983.

[30] Jamieson, Robert, Fausset, A. R., and Brown, David: A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and Nazarean Codicils. Oak Harbor, Washington: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997, S. Re 5:6

[31] Beale, G. K.., The Book of Revelation : A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans, 1999, S. 350

[32] Franz Delitzsch, HaB’rit HaChadasha – The Nazarean Codicil, London: The Society for Distributing the Holy Scriptures to the Jews.

[33] Cf. Simon J. Kistemaker, Nazarean Codicil Commentary: Exposition of the Book of Revelation, Grand Rapids Michigan: Baker Books, 2001, p.207.

[34] Maurice Simon, Midrash Rabbah Song of Songs, London: The Soncino Press, 1983, p. 117.

[35] Jacob Neusner, Pesiqta deRab Kahana: An Analytical Translation, Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press, 1987, pp. 79-80.

[36] See also John 1:36

[37] Harry Sperling & Maurice Simon, The Zohar, London: The Soncino Press, 1984, Vol. II, pp. 363-364.

[38] Harry Sperling & Maurice Simon, The Zohar, London: The Soncino Press, 1984, Vol. II, p. 30.

[39] Harry Sperling & Maurice Simon, The Zohar, London: The Soncino Press, 1984, Vol. III, pp. 70-71.

[40] Henry M. Morris, The Revelation Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Revelation, Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House, 1983, quoted in: Steve Gregg, Revelation: Four Views A Parallel Commentary, Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1997, p. 97.

[41] Arno C. Gaebelein, The Revelation: An Analysis and Exposition of the last Book of the Bible, Neptune, New Jersey: :oizeaux Brothers, 1915, quoted in: Steve Gregg, Revelation: Four Views A Parallel Commentary, Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1997, p. 97.

[42] Charles Caldwell Ryrie, Revelation, Chicago, Illinois: Moody Press, 1968, as quoted in: Steve Gregg, Revelation: Four Views A Parallel Commentary, Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1997, p. 97.

[43] George Eldon Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John, Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eeerdmans Publishing Co.,1972, p. 89.

[44] The above table is a brief outline of the Amida and is in part taken from the book: “Back to the Sources: Reading the Classic Jewish Texts” by Barry W. Holtz, pg. 41, Simon & Schuster; Reprint edition, 1986. Please, also note that there are variations in the Amidah for the morning, afternoon and evening services, as well as on Shabbats and Festivals.]

[45] John T. Townsend, Midrash Tanhuma Translated into English with Introduction, Indices, and Brief Notes: Vol I Genesis, Hoboken, New Jersey: Ktav Publishing House, 1989, p.23.

[46] Rabbi Dr. S. M. Lehrman, Midrash Rabbah: Exodus, London: The Soncino Press, 1983, pp.289-290.

[47] William G. Braude, The Midrash on Psalms (Midrash Tehillim), New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987, Vol. II, p. 143.

[48] Amos Hakham, The Bible Psalms with the Jerusalem Commentary: The Saul Koschitzki Edition of the Da’at Mikra Bible, Jerusalem: Mosad HaRav Kook, 2003, Vol. II, p.419.

[49] Harry Sperling & Maurice Simon, The Zohar, London: The Soncino Press, 1984, Vol. II, pp. 7-8.

[50] Robert H. Mounce, The New International Commentary on the Nazarean Codicil: The Book of Revelation, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1977, p. 148.

[51] Steve Gregg, Revelation: Four Views A Parallel Commentary, Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1997, p. 98.

[52] Harry Sperling & Maurice Simon, The Zohar, London: The Soncino Press, 1984, Vol. III, p. 257.

[53] Harry Sperling & Maurice Simon, The Zohar, London: The Soncino Press, 1984, Vol. III, pp. 341-342

[54] Adam Clarke, Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Holy Bible, abridged by Ralph Earle, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1967.

[55] George Eldon Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John, Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eeerdmans Publishing Co.,1972, p. 94.

[56] William Hendriksen, More than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1998, pp. 92-93